Skip to main content
ARS Home » Research » Research Projects

Subject of Investigation

Animal research, general
Aquatic plants
Arboreta and botanical gardens
Atmosphere, general/other
Beans (dry)
Beans (fresh, fresh-processed)
Bedding/garden plants
Beef cattle, general/other
Beef cattle, live animal
Bees, honey, and other pollinators, general
Berries and cane fruits, other
Biological Cell Systems
Broadleaf forests of the South
Chemurgic Crops
Citrus, general/other
Cole crops (includes cabbage, kale, broccoli, brussels sprouts, cauliflower,
Conifer forests of the North
Conifer forests of the South
Conifer forests of the West
Cool season perennial grasses (includes bluegrass, bromegrass, fescue)
Corn (for sweetcorn use 1480)
Cotton, other
Cottonseed (for meal, oil, etc.)
Cross-commodity research--multiple animal species
Cross-commodity research--multiple crops
Cucurbits, other (includes pumpkin, squash, gourd)
Cut flowers, foliage, and greens
Dairy cattle, general/other
Dairy cattle, live animal
Deciduous and small fruits, general/other
Deciduous tree fruits, other
Desert and semidesert shrub land and shinnery
Domestic and community water supply facilities and systems
Drainage and irrigation facilities and systems
Duck and goose, live animal
Durum wheat
Economy, general/other
Edible tree nuts, general/other
Egg-type chicken, live animal
Experimental design and statistical methods
Feed and feed additives
Fiber crops, general/other
Fish habitats
Florist crops, other
Food (not readily associated with specific plant and animal products)
Forage legumes, other
Freshwater shrimp
Fungi (includes yeast)
General Commodity
General technology
Goats, meat and mohair
Grain crops, general/other (includes buckwheat, millet, triticale)
Grain sorghum
Grapes, other
Grasslands, other
Greens and leafy vegetables (includes endive, lettuce, spinach)
Ground covers
Hard red spring wheat
Hard red winter wheat
Hard white wheat
Herbaceous perennials and decorative greens
Herbs and spices
Honey bees
Horses, ponies, and mules
Individuals (as workers, consumers, members of society)
Laboratory animals
Leguminous vegetables, other
Long fiber cotton
Machinery and equipment
Marine shrimp
Marketing, processing, and supply firms other than cooperatives
Meat, beef cattle
Meat, dairy cattle
Meat, sheep
Meat, swine
Meat-type chicken, live animal
Melons (includes cantaloupe, muskmelon, watermelon)
Microorganisms, general/other
Miscellaneous and new crops, general/other
Mixed conifer-broadleaf forests
Mountain grasslands, meadow, and alpine
Mushrooms and other edible fungi
Narcotic plants
Noncrop plant research
Oilseed and oil crops, general/other
Onion, garlic, leek, shallot
Ornamental trees and shrubs
Ornamentals and turf, general/other (includes cacti)
Other animals, general
Other beef cattle products
Other bees (non-Apis bees)
Other cultured finfish
Other dairy cattle products
Other non-bee pollinators, general
Other Pollinators
Other poultry products
Other swine products
Paper and pulp derived products
Parks and urban green space
Pasture and forage crops, general/other
Peas (dry)
Peas (fresh, fresh-processed)
People and communities, general/other
Perennial grasses, other
Pesticides (includes herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, etc.)
Plant research, general
Potted plants
Poultry meat
Poultry, general/other
Raisin grapes
Rangelands and grasslands, general
Rangelands, other
Red clover
Remote sensing equipment and technology
Research equipment and methods, general/other
Research on research management (not research management per se)
Rhizomes, tubers, bulbs, and root crops, general/other (for potato use 1310)
River basins
Rubber, gum, and resin plants, other
Seeds and other plant propagules
Sewage and waste disposal facilities and systems
Sheep and wool, general/other
Sheep, live animal
Soft red wheat
Soft white wheat (includes club, western)
Soil and land, general
Solanaceous and related crops, general/other (for potato use 1310)
Spiders, mites, ticks, and other arthropods
Striped bass
Sugar beet
Sugar cane
Sugar crops, general/other
Summer annual grasses (includes forage sorghums, sudangrass, sorghum)
Sweet potato
Sweet sorghum
Swine, general/other
Swine, live animal
Table grapes
The family and its members
The farm as an enterprise
Trees, forests, and forest products, general
Tropical/subtropical fruit, general/other
Turf (includes bentgrass, bermudagrass, bluegrass, dichondra, fescue)
Turkey, live animal
Upland cotton
Vegetables, general/other
Viroids, mycoplasmas, spiroplasmas, etc.
Warm season perennial grasses (includes dallisgrass, bluestems)
Water resources
Watersheds and river basins, general
Wetland and riparian systems
Wheat, other
Wild animals
Wildlife and natural fisheries, general/other
Wildlife habitats
Wine grapes
Winter annual legumes (includes subterranean clover, arrowleaf clover)
Wood and wood products
Wool fiber
Swine, live animal
item 16S Metagenomic Sequencing Analysis
item A Scalable Vascularized Hydrogel System for Agricultural Vector-borne Disease Research
item Actions Supporting the Development of an African Swine Fever Virus Live Attenuated DIVA Vaccine
item African Swine Fever Collaborative Agreement
item Agricultural Research Service - American Type Culture Collection Biological Repository Partnership
item Algorithms to Identify Novel Influenza A Viruses in Genomic Surveillance Data
item Alternatives to Antibiotics: Developing Novel Strategies to Improve Production Efficiency in Swine
item Alternatives to Antibiotics: Neonatal Immunomodulation to Improve Disease Resistance in Animals
item Alternatives to Antibiotics: Neonatal Immunomodulation to Improve Disease Resistance in Animals
item Alternatives to Antibiotics: Neonatal Immunomodulation to Improve Disease Resistance in Animals
item Analysis of Genetic Factors that Increase Foodborne Pathogen Fitness, Virulence, and Antimicrobial Resistance Transfer, to Identify Interventions against Salmonella and Campylobacter in Food Animals
item Analysis of the Immune Response Elicited by Classical Swine Fever Virus Recombinant Vaccine Candidate FlagT4G
item Analysis of the Interaction Between Virus Proteins and Membrane Structures in Cells Infected with CSFV and ASFV
item Animal and Arthropod Studies in BSL3 Containment at Pat Roberts Hall for Compararitive Zoonotic Arbovirus Studies
item Animal Studies in BSL-3 Containment at Pat Roberts Hall for Comparative Zoonotic Arbovirus Studies
item Applied Epidemiolgoical Approaches to Evaluate the Progressive Control Pathway for Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Endemic Regions
item Approaches for Improving and Measuring Red Meat Quality and Composition
item Aptamer-based Pen-side Diagnostics for Rapid Detection of SARS-CoV-2 Variants
item Assessing Priorities for African Swine Fever Research Gaps for Outbreak Prevention and Response
item Assessing the Risk of Arthropod-Borne Disease in the Caribbean and the Americas (RACE Risk of Arthropod-borne diseases in the Caribbean)
item Assessing the Utility of Geophones to Determine Animal Activity in Swine Farrowing Pens for Precision Management Monitoring - Stanford University
item Assessing the Utility of Geophones to Determine Animal Activity in Swine Farrowing Pens for Precision Management Monitoring - University of Michigan
item Assessing the Utility of Geophones to Determine Animal Activity in Swine Farrowing Pens for Precision Management Monitoring - University of Nebraska
item Assisted Reproductive Technologies for Heritage Swine Breeds
item Biohazard Consultation and Review Services
item Biological Safety Level 3 (BSL-3) Training Program for Research Support Personnel
item Biophotonics – Emerging Imaging Technologies for Food Animal Research
item Biophotonics- The Application of Novel Imaging Methodologies to Livestock Production Research
item Bovine and Porcine Research Projects Conducted at the Livestock Issues Research Unit's Liberty Farm Research Complex
item Building Foundations for E. Ruminantium Vaccine Development
item Campylobacter as Model System to Understand Emergence and Spread of Antimicrobial Resistance
item Cattle and Carcass Grading Correlation and Training Center
item Characterization of Influenza at the Human and Swine Interface
item Characterization of the Evolution of Influenza A Viruses (IAV) in Swine and Pathotyping of IAV in the Natural Host
item Characterization of Virus Isolates from the USDA Swine Influenza A Virus Surveillance System
item Characterization of Virus Isolates in Support of Swine Influenza A Virus Surveillance and Diagnostics
item Characterizing the Structure-Function of Various Families of Viroporins to Support African Swine Fever Virus Vaccine Candidates
item Chemical Composition of PM-10 and Gas Emitted from Cattle Livestock Operations
item Collection of Sheep Germplasm in the Mid-Atlantic Region
item Collective Dynamics of Environmental Multispecies Biofilms That Facilitate Sanitizer Tolerance and Dissemination of Foodborne Pathogens
item Curated African Swine Fever Genomic Database
item Deployed Warfighter Protection Research Program
item Detection and Characterization of Arboviruses and Environmental Influences on Transmission at the U.S. Wildlife and Livestock Interface
item Determining Fire Ant Bait Specificity to Extend Fire Ant Control by Conserving Non-Target Ants
item Determining the Thermal Preference of Weanling Pigs
item Develop Alternatives to Antibiotics for Priority Diseases in Animal Agriculture
item Development of a Decision Support Tool For Improving Sow Welfare During a Heat Stress Event
item Development of a Differential ELISA for ASV Vaccines
item Development of a Population Genetics Pipeline for Characterizing Viral and Vector Population Diversity
item Development of a Self-amplifying mRNA Vaccine for African Swine Fever and Classical Swine Fever
item Development of an African Swine Fever Virus Subunit Vaccine
item Development of an ASFV Nano-biosensor for Discriminating Between Infected and Vaccinated Animals
item Development of Diagnostic Reagents and Assays for Arbovirus Surveillance
item Development of Diagnostic Tools for Japanese Encephalitis Virus
item Development of Gene-editing Technologies in Livestock to Address Agriculturally Relevant Problems
item Development of Gene-Editing Technologies in Poultry and Other Livestock
item Development of Improved Diagnostic and Control Strategies for Brucellosis in Livestock and Wildlife
item Development of New Swine Reagents to Broaden Our Understanding of Immune Cell Identity and Function
item Development of New Swine Reagents to Broaden Our Understanding of Immune Correlates of Protection and Microbial Pathogenesis
item Development of New Technologies and Methods to Enhance the Fertility, Utilization, and Long-Term Storage of Poultry and Swine Germplasm (BRIDGE)
item Development of Short-Term Experiential Opportunities to Enhance the Veterinary Workforce
item Development of Short-term Opportunities for Experience in High Containment Research Animal Support Careers
item Discovery, Improvement, and Testing of Genetics that are Socially Acceptable for Genome Editing in Animal Agriculture
item Duroc Genetic Diversity
item Early Stress Experiences and Stress Resilience and Emotionality in Pigs
item Ecological Factors that Enable Colonization, Retention, and Dispersal of Foodborne Pathogens and Intervention Strategies to Control the Pathogens and Antimicrobial Resistance in Cattle and Swine
item Ecology of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus
item Effect of Resistant Starch and Cruciferous Vegetables on Mucosal Immunity and Disease Resistance
item Effects of Ant-Produced Compounds on Microbes
item Effects of Arbovirus Infection on Insect Feeding Behavior
item Effects of Beta Glucan Supplementation on the Immune Response of Holstein Steer Calves During an Endotoxin Challenge
item Efficacy of a Pan-genotypic Influenza A Virus Antisense Locked Nucleic Acid Oligonucleotide (LNA) as a Preventative and Therapeutic in Swine
item ELISA Development for Detection of Antibodies to S-Tag in PRRSV Swine Serum
item Elucidating the Biology of Sow Tolerance to Heat Stress at The Intersection of the Genome, Microbiome and Metabolome
item Elucidating the Factors that Determine the Ecology of Human Pathogens in Foods
item Emerging Animal Diseases that Exist Offshore
item Endemic Ecology and Molecular Epidemiology of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Asia and Africa
item Enhancing Biodefense Through Geospatial and Epidemiological Approaches
item Enhancing the National Animal Health Laboratory Network (NAHLN) Diagnostic Capability and Emerging Disease Preparedness...Next-Generation Sequencing
item Enhancing the Safety and Quality of Fresh Produce and Low-Moisture Foods
item Enhancing the Thermal Environment of Sows and Piglets to Simultaneously Improve Sow Welfare and Improve Lifetime Performance and Survivability of...
item Environmental and Management Influences on Animal Productivity and Well-Being Phenotypes
item Environmental Enrichment Effects on Pig Welfare During Lactation, Nursery and Grow-Finish Phases
item Environmental Enrichment in Swine and Poultry
item Epidemiological Fitness Assessment of Segmented RNA Viruses
item Epidemiological Workforce Development in Support of the National Agro and Bio-Defense Facility
item Evaluating the Interactions Between Swine Behavior and Heat Stress Response
item Evaluation of Effects of a Animal Nutrition Supplement on Short and Long-term Sow and Litter Health, Performance, and Welfare Under Heat Stress
item Evaluation of Media Formulated to Aid in Isolation of Shiga Toxin-producing E. Coli
item Evaluation of Novel Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Vaccine Candidates with Broad Breadth of Protection - Phase II
item Evaluation of the Modification of Virulence in Recombinant ASFV with Specific Gene Deletions
item Evaluation of the Spatial and Longitudinal Distribution of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes and Occurrence of Potential Horizontal Gene Transfer...
item Evaluation of Transboundary Disease Mitigation Strategies in Kenya
item Evolution of Influenza A Virus in Swine in Brazil
item Exploration of Novel repRNA Vaccine Candidates for Japanese Encephalitis Virus
item Exploration of Novel Virus-like Particle Vaccine Candidates for Japanese Encephalitis Virus
item Exploring the use of Probicon as a Direct-Fed Microbial to Reduce the Salmonella Burden in Market Hogs
item Foot-and-Mouth Disease Epidemiology in Asia and Africa
item Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Surveillance in Kenyan Livestock by Sampling at Animal Concentration Points
item Functional Genomics of African Swine Fever Virus Infections - An Effective System to Identify Pro-Tolerance and Resilience Pathways in Pigs
item Functional Identification of CD8 T-cell Specific Determinants in ASFV Georgia 2007/1 Isolate
item FY22 Developing Biological Control and other Safeguarding Tools to Manage Invasive Pests
item Gene-editing Technologies in Livestock
item Generation of Zoonotic Influenza Resistant Recombinant Pigs via Site-Directed Technology
item Genetic Characterization and Diagnostic Detection of Emerging Vesicular Stomatitis Virus in North America
item Genetic Characterization of African Swine Fever Virus Causing Disease Outbreaks in Asia and Africa
item Genomic Epidemiology of Campylobacter to Improve Disease Control in Low and Middle Income Countries
item Genomic Features of Human Adaptation of Campylobacter in Low-Income Settings
item High Performance Computing Related to Agricultural Research in Regard to Big Data, Geospatial Statistics, and Bioinformatics
item Holistic Tactics to Advance the Microbiological Safety and Quality of the Red Meat Continuum
item Host Cellular Immune Responses to Arboviruses
item Identification of Critical Host Genes for African Swine Fever Virus Infection Using Genome-Scale CRISPR Knock-Out Cell Libraries
item Identification of Host Proteins That Interact with ASFV Proteins Through Yeast Two Hybrid Screening
item Identification, Genomic Characterization, and Metabolic Modeling of Foodborne Pathogens in the Meat Production Continuum
item Identifying Flavivirus Determinants of Entry and Replication and Design of Potential Vaccine Candidates
item Immune and Genomic Determinants of Host Responses Associated with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Infections
item Impact of Sanitization and Natural Biofilm Communities on Salmonella Prevalence at Processing Plants
item Improved Surveillance and Control of Stable Flies, House Flies, and Other Filth Flies
item Improving Detection of Antimicrobial Resistant E. coli and Salmonella in Swine
item Improving Fire Ant IPM in the Coachella Valley: Effects of Irrigation on Bait Efficacy, Mating Flight Phenology, and the Status of Biocontrol Agents
item Improving Lifetime Productivity in Swine using Systems Biology and Precision Management Approaches
item Improving Livestock Production through the Development of Precision Rangeland Management Technologies
item Improving Piglet Survivability and Sow Welfare through Microenvironment Management
item Improving Welfare of Swine and Poultry through Environmental Enrichment
item Increasing the Efficacy of the Ad5-FMD Vaccine Using a Multi-Gene Delivery System
item Infectious Disease Research Supporting Workforce Development for the National Bio- and Agro-Defense Facility
item Inflammatory Ovarian Microenvironment Alters Granulosa Cell Function
item Influence of maternal- and embryonic- derived extracellular vesicles on the initiation of porcine conceptus elongation.
item Inherent Variation in Oxidative Stress Measures in Breeding and Lactating Gilts and Correlation to Measures of Sow Lifetime Productivity
item Institutional Biological Safety Committee (IBC) Agreement - Iowa State University
item Integrated Pest Management of Mosquitoes and Biting Flies
item Integrating Functional Genomics, Behavior, and Health Measures to Mitigate the Cumulative Effects of in Utero Heat Stress on Swine Welfare
item Integrating Functional Genomics, Behavior, and Health Measures to Mitigate the Cumulative Effects of in Utero Heat Stress on Swine Welfare
item Integrating Vesicular Stomatitis Surveillance, Phylogenetic Analysis and Remote Sensing Toward an Early Warning System for Vector-borne Diseases
item Interactive Effects of Mycotoxins, Peroxidized Soybean Oil, and Oxidized Protein on Measures of DNA, Lipid, and Protein Damage in Nursery Pigs
item Intervention Strategies to Control and Eradicate Foreign Animal Diseases of Swine
item Intervention Strategies to Control Endemic and New and Emerging Influenza A Virus Infections in Swine
item Intervention Strategies to Control Endemic and New Emerging and Re-Emerging Viral Diseases of Swine
item Intervention Strategies to Respond, Control, and Eradicate Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV)
item Intestinal Microbial Ecology and Non-Antibiotic Strategies to Limit Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and Antimicrobial Resistance Transmission in Food Animals
item Invasion history and spread of the little fire ant, Wasmannia auropunctata, in Florida.
item Investigating the Emergence and Ecology of Antimicrobial Resistance in High Risk Beef Cattle
item Japanese Encephalitis Virus Prevention and Mitigation Strategies
item Maintaining and Refining Animal GRIN
item Mammalian Responses to Arboviruses and Sorghum Polyphenols
item Management of Fire Ants and Other Invasive Ants
item Memorandum of Understanding Between the USDA, Agricultural Research Service and the USDA, Animal Plant Health Inspection Service
item Methyl Donor Availability in utero and Programming of Postnatal Performance in Beef Cattle
item Methyl Donor Availability in Utero and Programming of Postnatal Performance in Beef Cattle
item Microbial Ecology of Antimicrobial Resistance
item Mosquito Vector Predictive Modeling in a Changing Climate
item Multi-Dimension Phenotyping to Enhance Prediction of Performance in Swine
item National Animal Germplasm Program
item NIAID Centers of Excellence for Influenza Research and Response
item Novel Partnerships for an Early-career Pipeline to Enhance the Biodefense Veterinary Workforce
item Novel Spatial Repellents and Insecticides to Circumvent
item Optimizing Nutrient Management and Efficiency of Beef Cattle and Swine
item Optimizing Welfare for Food Producing Animals
item Pain Management in Swine
item Pathogenesis and Wildlife Host Range of Japanese Encephalitis Virus
item Physiological, Microbiological, and Nutritional Mechanisms to Maintain Animal Productivity in the Absence of Antibiotics
item Predicting and Mitigating Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV) in North America
item Predicting and Mitigating Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV) Outbreaks in North America
item Predictive Structure of African Swine Fever Viral Proteins
item Prevention and Mitigation of Pathogen Transmission from Cattle and Swine to Food, Water, and Environment
item Prevention of Lameness in Sows: Early Detection and Mitigation
item Prevention of Pathogen Contamination in the Lettuce Production Continuum
item Prevention of Pathogen Contamination in the Lettuce Production Continuum - TTU
item Prevention of Pathogen Contamination in the Lettuce Production Continuum - UC Davis
item Prevention of Pathogen Contamination in the Lettuce Production Continuum- U-Arizona
item Rapid Analysis of Bioactive Plant Constituents and Steroid Hormones in Beef Cattle Matrices
item Rapid Antemortem Tests for the Early Detection of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies and Other Animal Diseases
item Rapid Immunoassays for Pen-side Detection of SARS-CoV2 Viral Variants
item RAV3N Phase II: Network of University and Federal BSL-3/4 Large Animal and Laboratory Agricultural Research Facilities
item Research Supporting Workforce Development for the National Bio-Agro Defense Facility: Development of CSF Subunit Vaccines
item Research Supporting Workforce Development for the National Bio-Agro Defense Facility: Development of Novel Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus...Candidates
item Research Supporting Workforce Development for the National Bio-Agro Defense Facility: Virus-Host Interactions of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus
item Response to APHIS SARS-CoV-2 Research Priorities Phase 1 (VPR)
item SARS-CoV-2 Impact on Meat Production: A Farm to Plate Approach
item Simulation Modeling of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Outbreaks in Livestock in the U.S.
item Support Antimicrobial Resistance/Alternatives to Antibiotics Scientific Activities
item Supporting and Enhancing the Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Grand Challenge Project
item Surveillance of Non-Sylvatic Mayaro Virus Transmission and Other Arbopathogens and Insecticide Resistance in Mosquito Vectors in the USSOUTHCOM AOR
item Survival of the Animal Pathogen Bordetella bronchiseptica in Aerosols
item Sustainable Management of Manure Nutrients and Environmental Contaminants from Beef and Swine Production Facilities
item Synergizing Pyrethroid-treated Military Fabrics with Potassium Channel Blockers
item Systematic Discovery of ASFV Determinants of Virulence to Improve the Safety Profile of First Generation Live-Attenuated ASFV Vaccines
item Systematic Discovery of Individual African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) Proteins Required For Immunity to ASFV For Use In Subunit Vaccines
item TET3-CXXC Domain is Essential for Orchestrating Epigenetic Status during Early Embryogenesis in Pigs - NFCA
item The Agrosecurity Partnerships for Innovative Research (ASPIRE) Project for the National Bio and Agro-Defense Facility (NBAF)
item The Global African Swine Fever Research Alliance (GARA)
item The Study of Immune Response to Pathogens Using Monoclonal Antibodies
item The Study of Influenza A Viruses in the Swine Host
item The Study of Influenza A Viruses in the Swine Host
item Training a New Generation of Epidemiologists in Support of the NBAF Mission
item Training the Biodefense Research Workforce for the National Bio- and Agro-defense Facility (NBAF)
item Transmission Bottlenecks and Within-host Evolutionary Dynamics of Influenza A Virus
item Trichinella Testing of Pork to Establish a Negligible Risk Compartment
item Understanding Cross-Reactive Responses Between Heterologous Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Strains in the Bovine Model
item Understanding Molecular Bases in the Production of Genetic Diversity of African Swine Fever Virus
item Understanding Multiscale Environmental Predictors of Zoonotic Risk from Satellite Data
item Understanding Pathogenesis and Epidemiology for Controlling Foreign Animal Diseases
item Understanding the risks associated with utilizing genetically engineered microbes in beef cattle production systems: ...
item USDA Influenza A Virus in Swine Surveillance System – Genomic Epidemiology and Evolution
item Using Transcriptomics and Proteomics to Understand Arbovirus Effects on Midge Sensory Function
item Utilize the Purdue Animal Care and Use Committee (PACUC)
item Utilizing the Iowa State University Animal Care and Use Committee
item UTMB-USDA Collaboration on Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Ticks and Animals
item Vaccination Against Salmonella Serotype Reading With a Cross-Protective Salmonella Vaccine
item Validate Causative Mutations in Agriculturally-Important Vertebrates
item Validate Causative Mutations in Agriculturally-Important Vertebrates
item Validation of a Live-Virus Vaccine Candidate for Efficient Attenuation and Better Protection
item Vesicular Stomatitis as a Model for a Predictive Disease Ecology
item Virulence Mechanisms, Microbiome Changes and Control Strategies for Priority Bacterial Infections in Swine