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ARS Home » Midwest Area » Ames, Iowa » National Animal Disease Center » Virus and Prion Research » Research » Research Project #445446

Research Project: Mechanisms of Differential Pathogenesis and Risk Among Mammalian Isolates of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Strains in Swine

Location: Virus and Prion Research

Project Number: 5030-32000-231-107-R
Project Type: Reimbursable Cooperative Agreement

Start Date: Oct 17, 2023
End Date: Sep 17, 2024

This project has three objectives to identify mechanisms of differential pathogenesis and risk among mammalian isolates of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) strains in swine. The first objective is to evaluate the susceptibility to and pathogenesis of current HPAI H5N1 strains with mammalian adaption markers in swine. The second objective is to identify mammalian adaption markers in swine following 2 transmission chains. The third objective is to determine the seroprevalence or virus exposure of HPAI in swine via hemagglutinin inhibition assay using a de-selected H5.

To achieve the first objective we will complete a pathogenesis and transmission swine model to evaluate the susceptibility of swine to additional emerging genotypes of HPAI H5N1 with mammalian adaption markers; identify differences in transmission and pathogenesis using RT-qPCR, serology, and histopathology; and evaluate selected H5 viruses that transmitted in swine in a swine-to-ferret pathogenesis and transmission model. To achieve the second objective, we will sequence and analyze RT-qPCR positive samples generated in the pathogenesis and transmission model in combination with in vivo data to identify swine adaption markers. To achieve the third objective, we will acquire at least 4000 sera from swine in the United States over at least a 1 year period to determine seroprevalence via hemagglutinin inhibition assay using a de-selected H5.