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Title: Dietary intake of advanced glycation end products did not affect endothelial function and inflammation in healthy adults in a randomized controlled trial

Author
item Semba, Richard - Johns Hopkins School Of Public Health
item Gebauer, Sarah - University Of Maryland
item Baer, David
item Sun, Kai - Johns Hopkins School Of Public Health
item Turner, Randi - Johns Hopkins School Of Public Health
item Silber, Harry - Johns Hopkins School Of Public Health
item Talegawkar, Sameera - Johns Hopkins School Of Public Health
item Ferrucci, Luigi - National Cancer Institute (NCI, NIH)
item Novotny, Janet

Submitted to: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/25/2013
Publication Date: 4/17/2014
Citation: Semba, R.D., Gebauer, S., Baer, D.J., Sun, K., Turner, R., Silber, H.A., Talegawkar, S., Ferrucci, L., Novotny Dura, J. 2014. Dietary intake of advanced glycation end products did not affect endothelial function and inflammation in healthy adults in a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 144(7):1037-1042.

Interpretive Summary: When food is heated to high temperatures, the characteristic “browning” generates advanced glycation end products (AGEs) resulting from the reaction of reducing sugars with proteins. AGEs have been implicated as increasing risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and other adverse aging-related outcomes. Whether dietary AGEs are harmful for human health remains highly controversial. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a diet high or low in AGEs on endothelial function (a measure of blood vessel health), circulating AGEs, biomarkers of inflammation, and circulating receptors for AGEs in healthy adults. A randomized, parallel-arm, controlled dietary intervention was conducted for six weeks with 24 healthy adults, aged 50-69 years, which compared isocaloric, food-equivalent diets that were prepared either at high or mild temperatures. Peripheral arterial tonometry, serum and urine carboxymethyl-lysine (CML), interleukin (IL)-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), soluble receptor for AGEs (sRAGE), and endogenous secretory receptor for AGEs (esRAGE) were measured at baseline and following six weeks of dietary intervention. Both serum and urinary CML concentrations significantly decreased in the low AGEs diet group from baseline to six week follow-up. There were no significant changes in serum and urinary CML concentrations from baseline to follow-up in the high AGEs diet group. Compared with a low AGEs diet, the high AGEs diet had no significant impact upon endothelial function, IL-6, CRP, sRAGE, or esRAGE after six weeks of dietary intervention. In healthy middle-aged adults, a diet high in AGEs appears to have no adverse impact upon risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease. This information is important to physicians, food manufacturers, and allied health practitioners who can provide information on food preparation methods as it relates to health risks.

Technical Abstract: When food is heated to high temperatures, the characteristic “browning” generates advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that result from the reaction of reducing sugars with proteins. AGEs have been implicated in an increased risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and other adverse aging-related outcomes. Whether dietary AGEs are harmful for human health remains highly controversial. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a diet high or low in AGEs on endothelial function, circulating AGEs, biomarkers of inflammation, and circulating receptors for AGEs in healthy adults. A randomized, parallel-arm, controlled dietary intervention was conducted for six weeks with 24 healthy adults, aged 50-69 years, that compared isocaloric, food-equivalent diets that were prepared either at high or mild temperatures. Peripheral arterial tonometry, serum and urine carboxymethyl-lysine (CML), interleukin (IL)-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), soluble receptor for AGEs (sRAGE), and endogenous secretory receptor for AGEs (esRAGE) were measured at baseline and following six weeks of dietary intervention. Both serum and urinary CML concentrations significantly decreased in the low AGEs diet group from baseline to six week follow-up. There were no significant changes in serum and urinary CML concentrations from baseline to follow-up in the high AGEs diet group. Compared with a low AGEs diet, the high AGEs diet had no significant impact upon endothelial function, IL-6, CRP, sRAGE, or esRAGE after six weeks of dietary intervention. In healthy middle-aged adults, a diet high in AGEs appears to have no adverse impact upon risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease.