Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/14/2010
Publication Date: 8/1/2011
Citation: Richards, G.P. 2011. Inaccuracies in predicting human norovirus inactivation using surrogate viruses. Journal of Shellfish Research, Volume 30, Issue 2, P. 548.
Technical Abstract: Human norovirus (NoV) cannot be propagated in cell culture, so virus inactivation studies, including processing interventions, are generally performed on virus surrogates that may be readily quantified in the laboratory. However, there are fundamental differences in many closely related viruses, differences which limit their roles as surrogates. For example, feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus (MNV) are commonly used surrogates for human NoV, but their susceptibility to temperatures, pH, and environmental conditions have been shown to be dramatically different when directly compared with each other. Our laboratory showed that for high pressure processing, pressures of 250 megaPascals (MPa) for 5 min was sufficient to inactivate 7-log10 of FCV; however, 400 MPa for 5 min was required to reduce MNV by 4 log10, and using human volunteers, pressures as high as 600 MPa for 5 min were required to reduce 4 log10 of human NoV in oysters. Data obtained from surrogate viruses must be carefully scrutinized and treated as presumptive evidence of how the pathogen may respond to a particular treatment. The true measure of the utility of NoV surrogates can only be determined when surrogate studies are performed in tandem with volunteer studies using the human pathogens themselves.