Submitted to: Family Economics and Nutrition Review
Publication Type: Government Publication
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/21/2003
Publication Date: 12/31/2003
Citation: Enns, C.W., Mickle, S.J., Goldman, J.D. 2003. Trends in food and nutrient intakes by adolescents in the United States. Family Economics and Nutrition Review. 15(2):15-27.
Interpretive Summary: Population estimates of teenagers' food and nutrient intakes in three USDA surveys were compared to answer the question of whether their eating patterns changed over the past 20 years. The surveys were the Nationwide Food Consumption Survey (NFCS) 1977-78, the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) 1989-91, and the CSFII 1994-96, 1998. Groups who will benefit from this research include Federal and State level policy makers, researchers, nutrition and health professionals who monitor the adequacy of American diets, and nutrition educators who design programs to improve diets. Over time, increases were seen in intakes of soft drinks, grain mixtures, crackers/popcorn/pretzels/corn chips, fried potatoes, noncitrus juices/nectars, lowfat milk, skim milk, cheese, candy, and fruit drinks/ades; decreases were seen in intakes of whole milk, yeast breads/rolls, green beans, corn/green peas/lima beans, beef, and pork. The percent of calories from fat was closer to the recommended 30 percent in 1994-96, 1998 than in 1977-78, but that shift was partly due to increased carbohydrate intakes. Over time, intakes of thiamin, niacin, vitamin B-6, and iron increased and those of vitamin B-12 decreased. In 1994-96, 1998, fewer than one-half of teenagers consumed the recommended number of servings from any Food Guide Pyramid group, while intakes of discretionary fat and added sugars were much higher than recommended.
Technical Abstract: This article contains food and nutrient intake estimates for girls and boys age 12 to 19 years (teenagers) in three nationally-representative USDA surveys -- the Nationwide Food Consumption Survey (NFCS) 1977-78, the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) 1989-91, and the CSFII 1994-96, 1998. The Day 1 dietary recall for each respondent in each survey was used. The Day 1 response rate for the NFCS 1977-78 was 56.9 percent; for the CSFII 1989-91, 57.6 percent; and for the CSFII 1994-96, 1998, 81.5 percent. Presented are mean intakes of food and beverages in 42 selected food groups and subgroups; percentages of individuals using those foods and beverages; mean energy and nutrient intakes; percentages of individuals consuming the recommended number of servings from Food Guide Pyramid groups (CSFII 1994-96, 1998 only); mean hours per day of TV/video watching (CSFII 1994-96, 1998 only); and percentages using supplements. "Trends" and "changes" are defined in the text, noted in the tables, and discussed in the text. Data are provided for girls 12 to 19 years and boys 12 to 19 years. Standard errors are provided in tables.