Submitted to: Journal Of The American Dietetic Association
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/22/2002
Publication Date: 9/10/2003
Citation: Novotny Dura, J., Rumpler, W.V., Riddick, H., Judd, J.T., Baer, D.J., Mcdowell, M., Hebert, J., Briefel, R. 2003. Personality characteristics as predictors of under-reporting of energy intake on 24h dietary recalls. Journal Of The American Dietetic Association. 103:1146-1151
Interpretive Summary: Nutrition education is an important means of improving the health status of Americans. Millions of dollars are spent annually on programs to improve the awareness of Americans to nutritional issues. The considerable size of funds allocated to nutrition education requires that nutrition education be very carefully planned and executed based upon the actual needs of the public. However, many studies have shown that individuals tend to under-report food intake in dietary assessment surveys. In this study we have examined subject characteristics and measures associated with mis-reporting of energy intake. Ninety-eight subjects were interviewed regarding food intake using 24 Hour Recall. Many subject characteristics were measured, including height, weight, percent fat, and lifestyle questionnaires were administered to find measures which could be used as predictors of under-reporting of food intake. Predictors of under- reporting included gender, body fatness, total energy expenditure, resting energy expenditure, social desirability test scores, memory test scores, having attempted weight loss in the previous year, and weight gain during the past ten years. These results will be useful for health care professionals assessing food intake of individuals by survey methods, and also by health scientists whose research involved creating strategies to improve methods for dietary assessment.
Technical Abstract: Ninety-eight subjects were interviewed twice with 24-hour dietary recall interviews. Subjects' physical and lifestyle characteristics were also recorded. Total energy expenditure was determined by the doubly-labeled water method or by intake-balance for 8 weeks. Differences between the measured energy expenditure and the average reported energy intake were considered misreporting of energy intake. The difference between energy expenditure and reported energy intake was related to other measurements using Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients. For female subjects, energy misreporting was inversely correlated to total energy expenditure and resting energy expenditure, but was not correlated to body weight or % fat. For females, energy misreporting was also related to social desirability test scores, social approval test scores and weight gain during the past 10 years. For males, energy misreporting was not correlated to any physical characteristic measured, while weak relationships occurred between misreporting and word memory test scores as well as having attempted to lose weight in the past 12 months. For males and females combined, good predictors of under-reporting of energy intake included percent body fat, gender, having attempted weight loss in the past year, difference between body weight and self-designated ideal weight, weight gain during the past 10 years, and body image.