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ARS Home » Plains Area » Manhattan, Kansas » Center for Grain and Animal Health Research » Grain Quality and Structure Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #363621

Research Project: Impact of the Environment on Sorghum Grain Composition and Quality Traits

Location: Grain Quality and Structure Research

Title: Factors influencing Zein-Whole sorghum flour dough formation and bread quality.

item AKIN, PERVIN - Institute For Field Crops - Turkey
item Bean, Scott
item SMITH, BRENNAN - University Of Idaho
item Tilley, Michael - Mike

Submitted to: Journal of Food Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/4/2019
Publication Date: 12/13/2019
Citation: Akin, P.A., Bean, S.R., Smith, B.M., Tilley, M. 2019. Factors influencing Zein-Whole sorghum flour dough formation and bread quality.. Journal of Food Science. 84: 3522-3534.

Interpretive Summary: Zein is known to be able to form wheat-like dough when mixed under the right conditions. Most of the research on zein-based dough and food products has used high starch flours, which reduces the nutritional quality of these types of bread. This project investigated optimizing the production of zein-whole sorghum flour dough and bread as an alternative. Increasing the zein content in the formula and using additives produced breads from zein-whole sorghum flour that were like those made with zein and pure starch. Using whole sorghum flour in such breads increases fiber and micronutrient content and provides a way to improve the nutritional quality of the breads. This also provides a new market for sorghum utilization.

Technical Abstract: Zein is known to able to form visco-elastic dough with wheat-like properties. Several studies have been conducted to explain the mechanism behind zein’s ability to form visco-elastic dough and to improve the functionality and quality of zein-based dough systems. However, most of this research has been conducted using zein in combination with isolated starches or high starch flours. To investigate the production of additional zein-whole sorghum flour breads, experiments were conducted to determine factors impacting zein-whole sorghum flour dough and bread quality. Optimizing water levels, using defatted zein and/or sorghum flour, and increasing zein content in dough formulas were investigated as initial formulation steps. Of these factors, increasing zein content from 20% to 30% (flour weight basis) had the greatest impact and resulted in stronger zein-based dough and improved bread quality. Additives and zein treatments shown to impact zein functionality were then investigated for their effect of zein-whole sorghum flour breads. Mixing zein and whole sorghum flour with 0.5% hydrogen peroxide, 5% ethanol or 3% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) resulted in improved dough strength and bread quality. Breads made from whole white sorghum flour had improved quality compared to zein-based breads made with black or high tannin whole sorghum flour.