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ARS Home » Northeast Area » Ithaca, New York » Robert W. Holley Center for Agriculture & Health » Plant, Soil and Nutrition Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #285215

Title: Evaluation of calcium, phosphorus, and selected trace mineral status in commercially available dry foods formulated for dogs

Author
item GAGNE, JASON - Cornell University - New York
item WAKSHLAG, JOSEPH - Cornell University - New York
item CENTER, SHARON - Cornell University - New York
item Glahn, Raymond
item RUTZKE, MICHAEL - Cornell University - New York

Submitted to: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/9/2013
Publication Date: N/A
Citation: N/A

Interpretive Summary: With the expanding knowledge of macro and micronutrients, emerging changes in pet food supplementation, and regulatory recommendations, we were interested in examining concentrations of select major and trace minerals in forty-five commercial over-the-counter dry kibble adult maintenance and five therapeutic canine diets used for hepatic or renal insufficiency. We focused on minerals implicated in health and disease and sought to determine the breadth of mineral concentrations and compliance with AAFCO recommendations. The minerals in this descriptive study included calcium, phosphorus, zinc, iron, copper, manganese, and selenium. The minerals were measured using Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) and Mass Spectrometry (MS) and resulted in most foods complying with AAFCO recommendations. Calcium concentrations were excessive in some adult maintenance foods underscoring the need to feed appropriate life stage foods, particularly large and giant breed puppies. Additionally, there was 20-fold concentration difference found for some trace minerals suggesting a need to re-examine recommendations for the adult maintenance life-stage. However, bioavailability studies are needed to ascertain absorption of many of these minerals in dogs before firm recommendations can be made.

Technical Abstract: Objective – To evaluate the mineral content including calcium, phosphorus, zinc, iron, copper, manganese, and selenium of canine commercial pet foods and compare them to current AAFCO recommendations for adult maintenance. Design - Descriptive study. Sample – Forty-five over the counter dry canine pet foods and five veterinary therapeutic foods formulated for hepatic or renal disease. Procedures: Mineral content of pet foods were measured using Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) and Mass Spectrometry (MS). Results: Four commercial over-the-counter-foods exceeded the 7.1 g per 1000 kcal maximum recommendation for calcium, three foods exceeded the 4.6 g per 1000 kcal maximum recommendation for phosphorus, and two foods were below the adult maintenance minimum of 34 mg per 1000 kcal of zinc. Conclusions: Most foods complied with AAFCO recommendations. Calcium concentrations were excessive in some adult maintenance foods underscoring the need to feed appropriate life stage foods, particularly large and giant breed puppies. Additionally, there was 20-fold concentration difference found for some trace minerals suggesting a need to re-examine recommendations for the adult maintenance life-stage. However, bioavailability studies are needed to ascertain absorption of many of these minerals in dogs before firm recommendation can be made.