Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/29/2008
Publication Date: 7/28/2009
Citation: Kapczynski, D.R., Swayne, D.E. 2009. Influenza vaccines for avian species. In: Compans, R.W., Orenstein, W.A., editors. Vaccines for Pandemic Influenza, Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. p. 133-152.
Technical Abstract: Beginning in Southeast Asia, in 2003, a multi-national epizootic outbreak of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) was identified in commercial poultry and wild bird species. This lineage, originally identified in Southern China in 1996 and then Hong Kong in 1997, caused severe morbidity and mortality in many bird species, was responsible for considerable economic losses via trade restrictions, and crossed species barriers including its recovery from human cases. To date, these H5N1 HPAI viruses have been isolated in European, Middle Eastern, and African countries, and are considered endemic in many areas where regulatory control and different production sectors face many hurdles in controlling spread of this disease. While control of avian influenza (AI) virus infections in wild bird populations may not be feasible at this point, control and eradiation of AI from commercial, semi-commercial, zoo, pet and village/backyard birds will be a critical mission in preventing events that could lead to the emergence of epizootic influenza virus. One tool available to aid in this endeavor is efficacious vaccines which can aid in reduction of disease, viral shed, and transmission to susceptible cohorts. However, only when used in a comprehensive program, including biosecurity, education, culling, diagnostics and surveillance, can control and eradication be considered achievable goals. In humans, protection against influenza is provided by vaccines chosen based on molecular epidemiologicaly and antigenic data. Such updated vaccine strains are generally accepted for human vaccine use. In poultry and other birds, AI vaccines are produced against a specific hemagglutinin subtype of AI and the use is decided by government and state agricultural authorities based on risk and economic consideration, including considerations of trade restrictions. In the current H5N1 HPAI epizootic, vaccines have been used in a variety of avian species as apart of an overall control program to aid in disease management and control.