Submitted to: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/10/2008
Publication Date: 10/3/2008
Citation: Kim, L.M., King, D.J., Guzman, H., Tesh, R.B., Bueno, R., Dennett, J.A., Afonso, C.L. 2008. Biological and phylogenetic characterization of pigeon paramyxovirus serotype-1 circulating in North American pigeons and doves. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 46(10):3303-3310.
Interpretive Summary: Newcastle disease virus (NDV), also known as avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 (APMV-1) is of significant concern to poultry producers worldwide. As part of a surveillance program in Rhode Island and in the Houston Metropolitan Area, brain tissue was collected during 2000 to 2007 from 5,608 dead birds representing many species found in public places or reported by homeowners. Fifteen NDV isolates were recovered only from pigeons and doves and were positively identified by the USDA validated real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay targeting the matrix gene and, more specifically as pigeon-adapted paramyxovirus serotype-1 (PPMV-1) using a monoclonal antibody assay. The name PPMV-1 is a term applied to those NDV isolates from pigeons and doves that share unique biological and antigenic properties. The current study describes the biologic and molecular characterization of these virulent viruses and the challenges posed to their correct identification using rapid tests such as the real-time RT-PCR.
Technical Abstract: As part of a surveillance program in Rhode Island and in the Houston Metropolitan Area, brain tissue was collected during 2000 to 2007 from 5,608 dead birds representing 21 avian orders found in public places or reported by homeowners. Fifteen Newcastle disease virus isolates were recovered only from birds of the order Columbiformes and were positively identified by the USDA validated real-time RT-PCR assay targeting the matrix gene and more specifically as pigeon paramyxoviruses (PPMV-1) by hemaglutinin inhibition using monoclonal antibodies. Based upon partial genomic sequencing and phylogenetic analysis the newly isolated viruses represented a distinct sublineage within class II genotype VIb. All viruses (15/15) were classified as virulent based upon their fusion cleavage site motif (RRKKRF) and intracerebral pathogenicity indices >0.7 (ranging from 0.98 to1.35); however, these viruses failed detection by the fusion gene-based real-time PCR test for virulence. Modifications introduced to the probe site of the fusion gene-based assay allowed for rapid virulence detection within this distinct sublineage.