Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/12/2007
Publication Date: 2/28/2008
Citation: Kapczynski, D.R., Kogut, M.H. 2008. Measurement of avian cytokines with real time RT-PCR following infection with avian influenza. In: Spackman, E., editor. Avian Influenza Virus. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, Inc. p. 122-129.
Technical Abstract: Both functional and molecular techniques have been employed to measure the production of cytokines following influenza infection. Historically, the use of functional or antibody based techniques were employed in mammalian immunology. In avian immunology, only a few commercial antibodies are available to measure avian cytokines. However, the determination of genomic sequence of Gallus gallus species has made it possible to measure cytokine induction without monoclonal antibody or functional-based tests, but rather based on molecular techniques. Although these tests do not measure functionally expressed cytokines, the lack of reagents to identify and quantify avian cytokines makes them critical to extend any measure of cytokine response. Measurement of cytokine induction, based on the design of primers and probes for RT-PCR or real-time RT-PCR for the cytokine mRNA, has become one of the more recent technologies reported to measure avian cytokines. This chapter details methodologies for measuring the avian cytokine response to avian influenza infection with real-time RT-PCR.