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Title: Evaluating the cell mediated immune response of avian species to avian influenza viruses

item Kapczynski, Darrell

Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/28/2006
Publication Date: 2/28/2008
Citation: Kapczynski, D.R. 2008. Evaluating the cell mediated immune response of avian species to avian influenza viruses. In: Spackman, E., editor. Avian Influenza Virus. Totowa, NJ: Humana press, Inc. p. 108-121.

Interpretive Summary: The major function of an immune response is to recognize and eliminate invading microorganisms. The immune system of vertebrates is made up of two functional elements, the innate and adaptive, which contrast by their time of response and mechanisms of pathogen recognition. One arm of the adaptive immune response, cell-mediated immunity (CMI), is specific immunity mediated by T lymphocytes and has been suggested to be an important factor to the development of protection in chickens against avian influenza. This chapter provides methodologies for measuring the CMI of avian species against avian influenza.

Technical Abstract: The measurement of avian cellular immunity is critical to understanding the role and regulation of avian lymphocytes following avian influenza virus infection. Although the ability to measure avian T cell responses has steadily increased over the last few years, few studies have examined the role of cell mediated immunity in avian species against avian influenza. Because of the structural and functional differences between mammalian and avian immunology, including MHC architecture, different modes of somatic recombination for antibody production and the absence of lymph nodes in birds, the extent to which birds and mammals regulate similar immune responses against avian influenza virus is currently under investigation. The increasing availability of monoclonal antibodies recognizing avian T cell-associated antigens as well as a number of inbred lines of chickens with genetically defined MHC haplotypes make this an important field of research for the future.