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Title: Avian influenza: Vaccination and control

item Pantin Jackwood, Mary

Submitted to: Meeting Proceedings
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/15/2006
Publication Date: 11/13/2006
Citation: Pantin Jackwood, M.J. 2006. Avian influenza: Vaccination and control. In: Proceedings of the Cobb-Vantress Passport to the World Distributor Meeting, October 11, 2006, Las Vegas, Nevada. CD-ROM.

Interpretive Summary: Avian influenza virus can cause a serious disease in commercial birds that can result in severe economic losses to the poultry industry. Vaccination is one potential way to control an influenza outbreak, but historically has been seldom used. Currently vaccination is being considered more often because it can be used to not only control disease symptoms, but also to help eradicate the virus from a region or populations of birds. However, most types of vaccination still cause problems with disease protection because it is hard to differentiate infected from vaccinated animal (DIVA). Recently several DIVA strategies have been proposed that can allow this differentiation. The availability and use of effective vaccines can be a valuable tool in controlling outbreaks of avian influenza. However, effective control measures must also include quarantines, surveillance, and good biosecurity.

Technical Abstract: Avian influenza (AI) is a viral disease of poultry that remains an economic threat to commercial poultry throughout the world by negatively impacting animal health and trade. Strategies to control avian influenza (AI) virus are developed to prevent, manage or eradicate the virus from the country, region, state, county or farm. These strategies are developed using various combinations of five different components: 1) biosecurity (prevention or reduction in exposure), 2) diagnostics and surveillance, 3) elimination of AI virus infected poultry, 4) decreasing host susceptibility to the virus (vaccination or host genetics), and 5) education. Vaccination with high quality efficacious vaccines that are properly delivered can contribute to the control of avian influenza (AI) outbreaks when used as part of a comprehensive control program. However, most types of vaccination still cause problems with disease protection because it is hard to differentiate infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA). Several different DIVA strategies have been proposed for avian influenza to overcome this limitation. Vaccination is a potentially powerful tool for supporting eradication programs by increasing the resistance of birds to field challenge and by reducing the amount and duration of virus shed in the environment. Critical to the success of a vaccination program to control AI, is monitoring flocks for field virus exposure so appropriate measures can be taken.