Submitted to: The Threat of Pandemic Influenza: Are We Ready?
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/1/2005
Publication Date: 6/1/2005
Citation: Swayne, D.E., Suarez, D.L. 2005. The united states strategies for controlling avian influenza in agricultural systems. In: Knobler, S.L., Mack, A., Mahmond, A., Lemon, S.M. The Threat of Pandemic Influenza: Are We Ready? Washington, D.C.:Institute of Medicine, National Academies of Science. p 233-242.
Interpretive Summary: Not required.
Technical Abstract: Strategies to control avian influenza (AI) virus are developed to prevent, manage or eradicate the virus from the country, region, state, county or farm. These strategies are developed using various aspects of five different components: 1) biosecurity, 2) diagnostics and surveillance, 3) elimination of AI virus infected poultry, 4) decreasing host susceptibility to the virus, and 5) education. Avian influenza in commercial poultry of the USA is uncommon. Prevention of AI is the preferred strategy and is primarily practiced by reducing the risk of introduction or exposure. The primary risks for introduction into commercial poultry include: 1) direct access to wild birds infected with AI viruses, 2) the drinking water source being untreated surface water contaminated with AI viruses, 3) located in the same geographic region as endemic swine-influenza virus infected pigs (turkey breeder hens only), and 4) epidemiologic links to live poultry marketing system. Vaccines are uncommon in use and used only in areas of high risk. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) licenses all AI vaccines. However, both the USDA and state veterinarian determine when licensed vaccines can be used in the field.