|Chao, Kuanglin - Kevin Chao|
Submitted to: Applied Optics
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/22/2005
Publication Date: 9/20/2005
Citation: Ding, F., Chen, Y.R., Chao, K. 2005. Two-waveband color-mixing binoculars for the detection of wholesome and unwholesome chicken carcasses; A simulation. Applied Optics. 44(26):5454-5462.
Interpretive Summary: Presently, the Instrumentation and Sensing Laboratory (ISL) is developing a low cost optically enhanced device that can assist inspectors or plant processors in small meat and poultry plants to conduct inspection in situ. The system would be a color-based optical inspection device. We have shown that two-band color mixing to be directly related to the two-color band ratio criterion, which has been used for successful separation of wholesome and unwholesome poultry carcasses. Using a two-color mixing technique, small plant operators will be able to detect defective, diseased, and contaminated carcasses when viewed through the optical device. This paper reports the results of the research to select optimal waveband pairs from color difference and chromaticness difference indices, and to design optically enhanced binoculars for chicken inspection based on a two-color mixing technique. The simulation of color appearance is also presented. We showed that two color-mixing binoculars have potential for practical use in a processing plant environment. This will directly impact small-scale poultry processors in terms of improved efficacy of the HACCP program. This information would be useful to FSIS and researchers who are interested in developing low cost vision-based systems for inspecting agricultural products.
Technical Abstract: Visual inspection of wholesome and unwholesome chicken carcasses using a novel two narrow-band color mixing technique for optically enhanced binoculars was simulated. From mean spectra of wholesome, air-sacculitis (air-sac), cadaver, inflammatory process (IP), septicemia/toxemia (septox), and tumor chicken samples, 10-nm waveband pairs were selected using color and chromaticness difference indices for simulation of multi-target and single-target detection. The color appearance simulation used the CIECAM97s color appearance model. Results showed that for multi-target detection, the waveband pair (454 nm, 578 nm) was able to differentiate all six chicken conditions. For single-target detection of wholesome, air-sac, cadaver, and tumor, the waveband pairs of (449 nm, 571 nm), (441 nm, 576 nm), (458 nm, 576 nm), and (431 nm, 501 nm), respectively, easily identified each target condition from the other five conditions. For single-target detection of IP and septox, the waveband pairs of (454 nm, 591 nm) and (454 nm, 590 nm), respectively, were able to differentiate the target conditions from wholesome and tumor conditions, but had difficulty with the other chicken conditions. The two color mixing technique shows promise for use in small-scale processing plant environments to improve the visual inspection process.