|Lwamba, Humphrey C|
|Njenga, M Kariuki|
Submitted to: Virus Research
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/10/2004
Publication Date: 1/1/2005
Citation: Lwamba, H.M., Alvarez, R., Wise, M., Yu, Q., Halvorson, D., Njenga, M., Seal, B.S.2005. Comparison of the Full Length Genome Sequence of Avian Metapneumovirus Subtype C With Other Paramyxoviruses Including Highly Virulent Newcastle Disease Viruses. Virus Research. 107(1):83-92.
Interpretive Summary: Avian metapneumoviruses (AMPV) cause an upper respiratory tract disease designated turkey rhinotracheitis (TRT). The disease in commercial turkeys does not usually cause death, but symptoms can be more severe when accompanied by secondary bacterial infections. Prior to 1996 the disease was not found in the United States. However, a new viral subtype C different from European subtype A and B viruses is now present among commercial United States turkey flocks. The complete nucleotide sequence for the avian metapneumovirus type C genome was completed by ARS scientists in collaboration with investigators at the University of Minnesota. Based on the full genome sequence we have confirmed that the type C virus now found in the United States is unique among the avian viruses and more closely related to a recently reported metapneumovirus isolated from humans.
Technical Abstract: We have determined the nucleotide sequence of the small hydrophobic (SH), the attachment glycoprotein (G), the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L) genes, the genome termini and the non-coding intergenic regions of the avian metapneumovirus subtype C (aMPV/C Colorado). The complete genome is comprised of 13134 nucleotides (nt), with a 40 nt leader at its three prime end and a 39 nt trailer at its 5 prime end. The aMPV/C (Colorado) L gene was 6176 nt in length with a large single ORF encoding a polypeptide of 2005 amino acids (aa). Alignment of the aMPV/C (Colorado) L gene and deduced protein sequence with their counterparts from human metapneumoviruses (hMPV) revealed 72% identity at the nucleotide and 80% identity at the predicted aa level. The completion of the genome sequence of this first aMPV/C isolate confirms earlier reports that classified United States aMPV strains into subtype C. Comparative phylogenetic analyses with selected full length genomes of virulent Newcastle disease viruses and isolates from other related genera demonstrated that aMPV/C is genetically more similar to hMPV than to other members of the Paramyxoviridae.