Submitted to: Journal Of The American Dietetic Association
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/25/2003
Publication Date: 6/1/2004
Citation: Cotton, P.A., Subar, A.F., Friday, J.E., Cook, A.J. 2004. Dietary sources of nutrients among U.S. adults; 1994-1996. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. v. 104(6). p. 921-930.
Interpretive Summary: This study provides the most current estimates for dietary sources of nutrients among U.S. adults and includes the first known identification of dietary sources for vitamin A (RE), selenium, caffeine, and theobromine among U.S. adults. The uniqueness of these findings is the disaggregation of many mixtures (such as sandwiches, casseroles, salads) into ingredient components which would then be incorporated into food groups, thereby providing the most accurate accounting of the contribution of foods to nutrient intakes. Nutrients from 6,419 foods were assigned to 112 food groups based on similarities. These foods included 3,778 food mixtures disaggregated by USDA¿s FoodLink so that ingredient nutrients could be assigned to appropriate groups. This study provides valuable information to nutritionists, health educators, and policy makers for purposes of assessing the diets and health status of the U.S. population, developing nutrition and health education materials and programs, and establishing and evaluating food and nutritional regulatory criteria.
Technical Abstract: Objective: To identify major food sources of 30 nutrients and dietary constituents among U.S. adults during 1994 to 1996, and to compare them with those identified for 1989 to1991. Design: A total of 6,419 foods were assigned to 112 food groups based on similarities in nutrient content or use. These foods included 3,778 food mixtures disaggregated by USDA¿s FoodLink so that ingredients could be assigned to the appropriate groups and nutrient values ascribed accordingly. Subjects/setting: Single 24-hour dietary recalls from a nationally representative sample of 10,019 adults aged 19 years or older in USDA¿s 1994-96 Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals were used. Analyses performed: The population proportion formula was used to determine weighted nutrient intakes by food groups. Results were tabulated in descending rank order for food groups providing at least 1% of total nutrient intake. Results: 1994-96 dietary food sources were fairly consistent with 1989-91 results for the rank order and proportion these sources made to total nutrient intakes. Remarkable changes were seen in the higher proportion of energy from alcoholic beverages, in the shifts in the proportion of total fat and fatty acids from oil (higher ranked) and margarine (lower ranked), and in the lower proportion of vitamins and minerals from ready-to-eat cereals. Application/conclusions: Despite changes in survey methodology, the food supply, and eating patterns, food sources of nutrients among U.S. adults in 1994-96 and 1989-91 were similar. The 1994-96 data are the first known national population estimates for dietary sources of vitamin A (RE), selenium, caffeine, and theobromine among U.S. adults.