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item BULAGA, L
item GARBER, L
item SENNE, D
item MYERS, T
item GOOD, R
item Suarez, David

Submitted to: Avian Diseases
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/20/2002
Publication Date: 9/1/2003
Citation: Bulaga, L.L., Garber, L., Senne, D., Myers, T.J., Good, R., Wainwright, S., Suarez, D.L. Descriptive And Surveillance Studies Of Suppliers To New York And New Jersey Live Bird Markets. Avian Diseases 2003, v.47, p.1169-1176.

Interpretive Summary: Avian influenza is a viral disease of chickens and turkeys that can cause serious disease and losses to our export markets. Since 1994 a H7N2 influenza virus has infected poultry in the live bird markets in Northeast U.S. In an effort to understand why current eradication efforts have been unsuccessful, a study of the farms and wholesalers that supply birds to the live bird markets was undertaken. This study examined randomly selected farms and wholesale markets for evidence of infection of birds with influenza. Each farm or wholesaler was also asked questions to determine if there normal operating procedures could be risk factors for spreading influenza. A total of 185 premises were tested for influenza in nine states, but no evidence of infection with H5 or H7 influenza, potentially the most dangerous type of influenza, was found. The survey did demonstrate areas where the farms or wholesalers could improve their procedures to stop the spread of influenza, but risk factors could not be determined since no premises had evidence of influenza infection.

Technical Abstract: Low pathogenic avian influenza virus (AIV) H7N2 has been isolated since 1994 from retail live bird markets (LBMs) in the northeastern United States. This study examines the suppliers to the LBMs in NY and NJ. In 2001, 185 supplier premises in nine states were surveyed for the presence of AIV by virus isolation (VI) in embryonating chicken eggs . No H7 or H5 virus was isolated. In addition, 102 producer premises in two states were serologically negative for H7 and H5 AIV. Information on management practices was obtained via questionnaire for 191 premises in 12 states. The survey results suggest that current biosecurity practices at supplier premises could be improved, especially regarding movement of birds. The study supports the hypothesis that H7N2 AIV is primarily maintained within the LBMs and, if reintroduction from suppliers is occurring, it is likely reintroduced at a very low level or from suppliers not included in this study.