Submitted to: Journal of Food Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/1/2001
Publication Date: N/A
Interpretive Summary: The nutritional quality of five forms of iron added to white wheat bread and milk were compared using a simulated digestion/human intestinal cell model. In white bread, sodium-Fe-EDTA was no more available for absorption than electrolytic iron, even though sodium-Fe-EDTA was much more soluble. Also, both sodium-Fe-EDTA and electrolytic iron were less available for absorption than ferrous sulfate (FeSO4) in bread. Ferrous fumarate and Ferrochel (a unique Fe chelate with glycine) were similar to ferrous sulfate in both availability and solubility in white wheat bread. In 2% fat milk, the availability and solubility of ferrous fumarate, encapsulated ferrous fumarate, and Ferrochel were similar to FeSO4; also, sodium-Fe-EDTA had twice the solubility of FeSO4 but was similar in availability. These results will be useful to food manufacturers and nutritionists seeking to fortify these foods for populations at risk of iron deficiency.
Technical Abstract: The availabilities and dialyzabilities of various iron fortificants in bread and milk were compared using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell culture model. In white bread, availability and dialyzability of electrolytic iron were lower than most iron sources. NaFe(III)EDTA was the highest in dialyzability but was similar in availability to ferrous fumarate, Ferrochel and FeSO4. In 2% fat milk, NaFe(III)EDTA was again th highest in dialyzability but was similar in availability to ferrous fumarate, encapsulated ferrous fumarate, Ferrochel and FeSO4. The results suggest that iron from NaFe(III)EDTA and electrolytic iron in foods does not completely exchange with the nonheme iron pool but the other sources do.