Submitted to: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/14/2001
Publication Date: 12/14/2002
Citation: Behall, K.M., Hallfrisch, J.G. Plasma glucose and insulin reduction after consumption of breads varying in amylose content. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2002; 56(9):913-20. Interpretive Summary: Most health organizations recommend an increase in consumption of complex carbohydrate for beneficial health effects in individuals with diseases such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Maturity onset diabetes, characterized by elevated blood glucose levels and insulin resistance, has increased in prevalence in the US as the average age of our population increases. It has been shown that consumption of a high amylose (straight chain starch) meal results in a beneficial reduction in insulin and glucose levels in response to a meal containing the slowly digested starch. This study determined the effect of a meal containing increasing levels of amylose compared to standard (amylopectin, a branched chain starch) on health parameters. Glucose and insulin response to the carbohydrate loads was similar in men and women. Peak glucose response was lowest after breads the containing 50-70% amylose starch. Insulin response was significantly lower after the 60% and 70% amylose starch breads than after the glucose or the other breads. The greatest overall reduction in glucose and insulin response occurred after the 60% and 70% amylose starch breads. Results indicate that the amylose content of the starch used in the meal needs to be greater than 50% to beneficially reduce plasma glucose and insulin response. Health providers should be aware of the health benefits of this slowly digested starch and the amount needed to reducing the postprandial rise in glucose and insulin. Nutritionists, and health care professionals will benefit by having additional knowledge of this low glycemic index (slowly digested starch) food source.
Technical Abstract: Objective: Consumption of a meal high in amylose starch (70%) decreases peak insulin and glucose levels and area under the curve (AUC). The objective was to determine the amount of amylose necessary in a meal for the beneficial decrease in glucose or insulin to occur. Design: Twenty-five subjects, 13 men (averaging 88.1 kg, 41 years, and 27.9 body mass index) and 12 women (averaging 72.4 kg, 41 years, and 27.1 body mass index) were given six tolerance tests in a Latin Square design: glucose alone (1 g glucose/kg body weight) and five breads (1 g carbohydrate/kg body weight) made with 70% amylose cornstarch, standard cornstarch (30% amylose), and blends of the two starches (40%, 50%, and 60% amylose starch). A standard menu was fed for 3 days. One subject withdrew from the study. Results: Glucose and insulin response to the carbohydrate loads was similar in men and women. Peak glucose response was lowest after the breads containing 50% to 70% amylose starch. AUC was significantly higher after the glucose load than after all bread loads. The lowest AUCs occurred after the 60% and 70% amylose starch breads. Insulin response and AUC were significantly lower after the 60% and 70% amylose starch breads than after the glucose or the other breads. Conclusion: Results indicate that the amylose content of the starch used in the acute meal needs to be greater than 50% to significantly reduce plasma glucose and insulin in men and women.