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ARS Home » Midwest Area » Peoria, Illinois » National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research » Functional Foods Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #397918

Research Project: Improved Utilization of Whole Pulses, Pulse Fractions, and Pulse Byproducts for Health-Promoting Food Ingredients and Biobased Products

Location: Functional Foods Research

Title: Comparison of raw and excess steam jet-cooked/drum-dried pinto bean flours and their effects on ground beef patties

item Felker, Frederick
item Kenar, James - Jim
item Singh, Mukti
item Moser, Jill
item Byars, Jeffrey

Submitted to: Journal of Food Processing and Preservation
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/16/2023
Publication Date: 3/29/2023
Citation: Felker, F.C., Kenar, J.A., Singh, M., Moser, J.K., Byars, J.A. 2023. Comparison of raw and excess steam jet-cooked/drum-dried pinto bean flours and their effects on ground beef patties. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. Article 5915625.

Interpretive Summary: The increasing cost of meat as well as growing health and sustainability concerns has led to increased interest in meat extenders and fat replacers for products such as hamburgers and meatballs. Pulse flours have been reported to function in this application, but the processing of pulse flour by excess steam jet-cooking and drum drying represents a potential advantage that could allow higher levels of substitution. Pinto beans were chosen for this study because their seed coat color blends well with both raw and cooked ground beef patties. Pinto bean flour was jet-cooked and drum-dried (JC-DD) to compare with raw flour when used at 3 levels with an equal amount of water in ground beef patties. The processing of the flours solubilized the starch granules in the flour, and also reduced some of the volatile beany flavor compounds. Cooking times and shrinkage during cooking were lower with JC-DD flour treatments, and texture analysis revealed slightly more tenderizing effects than raw flour. The use of jet-cooked pinto bean flour as a partial meat replacer in ground beef patties provides an alternative to consumers who wish to reduce meat in their diet but do not accept the meatless options currently available.

Technical Abstract: Many types of plant-based materials have been investigated as fat replacers or meat extenders in beef patties and meatballs, including cereal and pulse flours as well as isolated plant proteins. Previously, excess steam jet cooking and drum drying of pulse flours were shown to impart potentially useful properties as food ingredients. In this study, pinto bean flour was jet-cooked and drum-dried (JC-DD) and compared with raw pinto bean flour when added to ground beef patties. The finely milled flours were mixed with ground beef at levels of 6, 12, and 18% along with equal amounts of water. The effects of jet cooking and drum drying on the flour included complete breakdown of starch granules, greatly reduced viscosity upon heating in water, and substantial reduction of several volatile beany flavor components. The highest level of JC-DD flour resulted in the highest cooked patty weight, moisture content, and diameter and the lowest cooking time, springiness, and fat content. There were significant color changes in both raw and cooked beef patties to which pinto bean flour was added, but they were not large due to the native color of bean seed coats. Texture analysis revealed that addition of JC-DD flour to the meat resulted in a greater degree of tenderizing compared to the raw flour. The experiments indicate that further investigation of different flour/water ratios and different pulse types might lead to higher substitution levels. Novelty Impact Statement. The use of pulse flour as a meat extender was investigated with the novel approach of processing the pulse flour by excess steam jet cooking and drum drying. Comparison of the effects of raw and jet-cooked flour on the properties of cooked ground beef patties revealed advantages of jet cooking the flour including higher cooked patty weight, moisture content, and diameter and a greater degree of tenderizing.