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Research Project: Improved Processes and Technologies for Comprehensive Utilization of Specialty Grains in Functional Food Production for Digestive Health and Food Waste Reduction

Location: Functional Foods Research

Title: Intestinal gas production by the gut microbiota: A review

item MUTUYEMUNGU, ERASME - University Of Nebraska
item Singh, Mukti
item Liu, Sean
item ROSE, DEVIN - University Of Nebraska

Submitted to: Journal of Functional Foods
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/4/2022
Publication Date: 12/8/2022
Citation: Mutuyemungu, E., Singh, M., Liu, S.X., Rose, D. 2022. Intestinal gas production by the gut microbiota: A review. Journal of Functional Foods. 100. Article 105367.

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: In addition to causing embarrassment, intestinal gas is reported to be associated with other symptoms, some of which can be deleterious. Therefore, this review provides an overview of the gas–producing pathways used by the human gut microbiome and outlines foods associated with intestinal gas. Bacteroides, Ruminococcus, Roseburia, Clostridium, Eubacterium, Desulfovibrio, and methanogenic Archaea (e.g., Methanobrevibacter) are among the most abundant microbes responsible for gas produced from the fermentation of nutrients in the colon. More than 99% of intestinal gas produced by gut microbiota is composed of hydrogen, carbon dioxide and methane, while less than 1% is composed of various other odiferous gases. Many intervention studies have linked different food groups with intestinal gas. Food groups associated with intestinal gas include pulses, vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and, for some individuals, dairy products. These foods are rich in non–digestible carbohydrates such as raffinose family oligosaccharides, fructans, polyols, and, for sensitive individuals, lactose. These carbohydrates escape digestion in the small intestines and pass into the colon, where they are fermented by colonic bacteria and directly or indirectly by cross-feeding produce gases. Additional research on gaseous products released by gut microbiota and foods associated with gas may well help mitigate the symptoms linked to intestinal gas.