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ARS Home » Midwest Area » Peoria, Illinois » National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research » Functional Foods Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #386353

Research Project: Improved Processes and Technologies for Comprehensive Utilization of Specialty Grains in Functional Food Production for Digestive Health and Food Waste Reduction

Location: Functional Foods Research

Title: Physiochemical properties of jet-cooked amaranth and improved rheological properties by processed oat bran

item Liu, Sean
item Chen, Diejun
item Xu, Jingyuan - James

Submitted to: Future Foods
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/13/2021
Publication Date: 6/1/2022
Citation: Liu, S.X., Chen, D., Xu, J. 2022. Physiochemical properties of jet-cooked amaranth and improved rheological properties by processed oat bran. Future Foods. 5. Article e100107.

Interpretive Summary: Innovative gluten-free food ingredients are in high demand for new functional food product since gluten allergy is a rising issue today. This study developed pioneering nutritious food ingredients using amaranth flour containing 10-50% oat bran by jet-cooked technology. Gluten-free amaranth grains have received growing attention as an excellent phytochemical source that is superior to common grains such as wheat. Oat bran is well known for the benefit of preventing coronary heart disease and improving the texture of food product. Results indicated that the novel ingredients contained higher protein, mineral and total amino acid contents compared to wheat flours. In general, jet-cooking effectively reduced particle size and bulk density, whereas the soluble fiber content, water-holding capacity, and soluble solids were increased, which are critical for potential functional food applications, especially for dairy, beverage, and porridge products. The hydro-thermal processed amaranth-oat composites showed satisfactory characteristics for further food processing that leads to many types of commercial food products with high quality that are beneficial for people allergic to wheat proteins.

Technical Abstract: The development of novel gluten-free amaranth and oat bran composites using innovative thermomechanical processing is important for producing food products for consumers allergic to wheat proteins. This study intended to develop nutritious food ingredients using steam jet-cooked amaranth flour composted with 10-50% jet-cooked oat bran. The protein, mineral (in the form of ash), and amino acid contents of amaranth and oat bran flour were analyzed along with measurements of their water-holding capacity (WHC) and rheological properties. Results showed that amaranth and oat bran composites have higher protein, mineral, and total amino acid content compared to wheat flour. The hydro-thermal and shearing process effectively decreased particle size and bulk density, whereas the processing increased the WHC, soluble fiber content, soluble solids, and favorable viscoelasticity. The protein, ash, and amino acid contents were not influenced by the hydro-thermal process. Significant positive correlations were found between ash and protein, and between WHC, water absorption index, (WAI) and swelling point (SP), respectively. In contrast, significant negative correlation was observed between both protein and ash with bulk density (p < 0.01). Results indicated that the hydro-thermal process and additional processed oat bran greatly enhanced WHC and viscoelastic property that are critical for handling, mixing, cooking, and food applications for dairy, beverage, and porridge products.