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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Raleigh, North Carolina » Food Science and Market Quality and Handling Research Unit » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #352701

Research Project: Improvement and Maintenance of Flavor, Shelf Life, Functional Characteristics, and Biochemical/Bioactive Components in Peanuts, Peanut Products and Related Commodities through Improved Handling, ...

Location: Food Science and Market Quality and Handling Research Unit

Title: Feeding high-oleic peanuts to layer hens enhances egg yolk color and oleic fatty acid content in shell eggs

Author
item Toomer, Ondulla
item Hulse-Kemp, Amanda
item Dean, Lisa
item Boykin, Deborah - Debbie
item RAMON, MALHEIROS - North Carolina State University
item ANDERSON, KEN - North Carolina State University

Submitted to: Poultry Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/30/2018
Publication Date: 3/13/2019
Citation: Toomer, O.T., Hulse-Kemp, A.M., Dean, L.L., Boykin, D.L., Ramon, M., Anderson, K.E. 2019. Feeding high-oleic peanuts to layer hens enhances egg yolk color and oleic fatty acid content in shell eggs. Poultry Science. 98:1732-1748. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pey531.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pey531

Interpretive Summary: In years past, normal-oleic peanuts were identified as a suitable and economical broiler chicken feed ingredient. However, no studies to date have examined the use of new high-oleic peanut cultivars (80% oleic fatty acids and 2% linoleic fatty acids) as a feed ingredient for poultry and layer hens and determined the impact of feeding high-oleic peanuts on the nutritive qualities and taste of shell eggs and meat produced. These studies conducted within the Market Quality & Handling Research Unit have demonstrated that shell eggs produced from laying hens fed a diet of high-oleic peanuts had superior nutritive and sensory attributes (2 to 3 fold greater levels of ß-carotene a vitamin A precursor, heart healthy total oleic fatty acid, and yolk color intensity) relative to shell eggs produced from traditionally fed (soybean meal) layer hens. The benefits of this project could potentially have a positive economic impact on the peanut industry due to the identification of high-oleic peanuts as a more preferable feed ingredient for poultry due to improved nutrition and sensory attributes of the shell eggs produced, providing an additional selling market to individuals within the peanut production industry.

Technical Abstract: Previous studies have identified normal-oleic peanuts as a suitable and economical broiler feed ingredient. However, no studies to date have examined the use of high-oleic (HO) peanut cultivars as a feed ingredient for laying hens and determined the impact of feeding HO peanuts on performance, and egg nutritive and sensory qualities. This project aimed to examine the use of HO peanuts, as a feed ingredient for layer hens to determine the effect on performance, egg lipid chemistry and quality of the eggs produced. Forty-eight 40-week-old layer hens were fed a conventional soybean meal + corn control diet or a HO peanut + corn diet for 10 weeks in conventional battery cages. Body and feed weights were collected weekly. Pooled egg samples were analyzed for quality, lipid analysis and peanut protein allergenicity. There were no significant differences, in hen performance, or egg quality as measured by, USDA grade quality, and egg albumen height or egg Haugh unit between the treatment groups. However, eggs produced from layer hens fed the HO peanuts + corn diet were smaller in size relative to eggs produced by layer hens fed the control diet. Eggs produced from layer hens fed the HO peanut diet had greater yolk color scores (p<0.05), HO fatty acid and ß-carotene levels in comparison to the controls. Eggs produced from hens fed the control diet had greater (p<0.05) saturated fatty acids and trans fat content compared to eggs produced from hens fed the HO peanut diet. All egg protein extracts from all treatments at each time point were non-reactive with rabbit Anti-Peanut Agglutinin antibodies. This study identifies HO peanuts as an abundant commodity that could be used to support local agricultural markets of peanuts and poultry within the southeastern US and be of economic advantage to producers while providing a potential health benefit to the consumer with improved egg nutrition.