Submitted to: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/2/2017
Publication Date: 6/29/2017
Citation: Toomer, O.T. 2017. Nutritional chemistry of the peanut (Arachis hypogaea). Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 58(17):3042-3053. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2017.1339015.
Interpretive Summary: Peanuts, Arachis hypogaea, also known as the groundnut and/or goober, is a nutritionally compact legume crop grown worldwide for its edible seeds. Peanuts are widely used to prepare a variety of packaged foods in the United States and are relied upon as a protein extender in developing countries. In recent years, research studies have demonstrated that regular consumption of peanuts reduces the risk of heart disease, certain types of cancers and is beneficial in weight management. Moreover, other studies have identified the value in the phytonutrient composition of peanuts, which may improve overall health and wellness. This review aims to provide a comprehensive review of the nutritional chemistry of the peanut as related to health/wellness and use within the body. An improved understanding of the nutritional chemistry of peanuts may enable better utilization of the nutritional components of peanuts for improved uses within the food and feed industry.
Technical Abstract: Peanuts, Arachis hypogaea, are one of the most widely consumed legume globally due to its nutrition, taste and affordability. Peanuts are protein and energy-rich and has been utilized worldwide to address the nutritional needs in developing countries. Currently, its role in a heart-healthy diet has warranted tremendous attention among consumer groups and the scientific communities. Additionally, current studies have identified the value in the phytonutrient composition of peanuts, such as resveratrol, isoflavonoids, phenolic acids, and phytosterols, which may enhance overall health and wellness. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the nutritional chemistry of peanut components (macronutrients-proteins, lipids, carbohydrates; micronutrients-vitamins and minerals; phytonutrients) as related to health and use within the body. An improved comprehensive knowledge and better understanding of the nutritional chemistry of peanuts enables us to better harness the power of these nutrients in improved peanut products within the food and feed industry.