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ARS Home » Midwest Area » Peoria, Illinois » National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research » Functional Foods Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #310430

Title: Navy bean flour particle size and protein content affect cake baking and batter quality

item Singh, Mukti
item Byars, Jeffrey
item Liu, Sean

Submitted to: Journal of Food Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/14/2015
Publication Date: 6/17/2015
Publication URL:
Citation: Singh, M., Byars, J.A., Liu, S.X. 2015. Navy bean flour particle size and protein content affect cake baking and batter quality. Journal of Food Science. 80(6):E1229-E1234.

Interpretive Summary: This research determined that by lowering the protein content of whole navy bean flour with addition of navy bean starch, navy bean flour could be used as a healthy alternative in gluten-free cakes. There is a great demand for wheat alternatives in foods, particularly baked goods as gluten sensitivity increases. Baked goods, such as cakes, have wheat flour as a major ingredient, which is rich in gluten protein. Bean proteins do not have gluten, and are a good source of soluble fiber, B-vitamins, iron, calcium, potassium, and phosphorous, and low in sodium and fat. Blends of whole navy bean flour with navy bean starch were prepared to adjust protein content. The blends were used to measure cake batter and cake quality. Cakes using navy bean flour blends, and wheat flour as a control were prepared. Standard methods were used to measure the batter and cake quality of control and test samples. These findings will benefit the pulse industry and promote health and wellness by creating healthy alternatives for wheat flour in healthy gluten-free cakes.

Technical Abstract: Whole navy bean flour and its fine and coarse particle size fractions were used to completely replace wheat flour in cakes. Replacement of wheat flour with whole bean flour significantly increased the protein content. The protein content was adjusted to three levels with navy bean starch. The effect of navy bean flour and its fractions at three levels of protein on cake batter rheology and cake quality was studied and compared to wheat flour samples. Batters prepared from navy bean flour and its fractions had higher viscosity than the cake flour. Reducing the protein content by addition of starch significantly lowered the viscosity of cake batters. The whole navy bean flour and coarse bean fraction cakes were softer than cakes made with wheat flour but had reduced springiness. Principal component analysis showed a clear discrimination of cakes according to protein. It also showed that low protein navy bean flour cakes were similar to wheat flour cakes. Navy bean flour with protein content adjusted to the level of cake (wheat) flour has potential as a healthy alternative in gluten-free cakes.