Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/18/2014
Publication Date: 11/19/2014
Citation: Felker, F.C., Kenar, J.A., Byars, J.A., Singh, M., Liu, S.X. 2014. Utilization of functional food components from pulses [abstract]. International Conference of FFC-International Symposium of ASFFBC.
Technical Abstract: Dry beans, peas, and lentils (pulses) are a principle source of protein in many parts of the world and have long been known to be healthy foods. Their use in traditional ethnic foods is well established; however, unlike grains, meat, dairy products, and other vegetables, they are not universally present in the diet of most Americans. Pulses contain a broad range of beneficial components including soluble and insoluble fiber, prebiotics, high quality protein and starch, and minor constituents such as phenolic acids, antioxidant flavonoid pigments, saponins, and phytosterols. Major efforts have been made, especially in recent years, to expand the acceptance of pulse foods and increase the utilization of fractions derived from pulse processing as supplemental food additives. Consequently, pulse consumption and awareness is gradually increasing. Although basic knowledge about the functional constituents in pulses has been well established, there remains a need to better understand the effects of processing operations on the functional characteristics of pulse components and develop improved ways of incorporating beneficial pulse constituents into food systems. To identify the best specific sources of functional food components from pulses, and to develop efficient processing technologies to deliver them into foods while minimizing the effects of negative or anti-nutritional attributes. Traditionally, pulses have been consumed with minimal processing by simply soaking and cooking whole seeds or dehulled, ground seeds. In the U.S., most pulses are consumed as canned or prepared foods. The pulse industry provides a variety of pulse flours, as well as fractions rich in fiber and protein, and promotes their use as supplemental additives in many foods and beverages, particularly in gluten-free products. These materials are produced using milling, air classification, and some heating methods. Extrusion processing has been used to combine pulse flours and fractions with grains to produce a variety food product types. Soaking and extraction techniques are used to remove undesirable raffinose oligosaccharides or isolate protein. Current research is exploring steam jet cooking and other processing techniques as an approach to improve the characteristics of pulse fractions and provide food ingredients enriched in the recognized health-promoting constituents. By developing effective and efficient processing technologies, the many beneficial functional food constituents in pulses can be made available to a broader market than is currently using pulses or pulse products. Determining the best methods for removing undesirable flavors, colors, and textures, increasing solubility or compatibility with other food ingredients, and eliminating anti-nutritional factors such as protease inhibitors, lectins, polyphenols, and allergens, the useful major components of the seeds (fiber, protein, and starch) can be transformed into food ingredients with greater appeal to a wider range of consumers. The potential of pulse crops as a rich source of functional foods and bioactive constituents can be better realized by further research on processing technologies that enable improved characteristics for incorporation into a broader range of foods.