|FAGERIA, N - Embrapa|
|HEIHEMANN, A - Embrapa|
|CARVALHO, M - Embrapa|
Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/11/2013
Publication Date: 12/30/2014
Citation: Fageria, N.K., Baligar, V.C., Heihemann, A.B., Carvalho, M.C. 2014. Nitrogen uptake and use efficiency in rice. In: Rakshit, A., Singh, H.B., Nutrient Use Efficiency: From Basics to Advances, New Delhi, India, Springer Publications, p. 285-296.
Technical Abstract: Rice is a staple food for a large proportion of the world’s population. Most of the rice is produced and consumed in Asia. Rice is produced in both upland and lowland systems, with about 76% of the global rice produced from irrigated-lowland rice systems. Nitrogen (N) is one of the most important inputs in the production of rice. Recovery efficiency of N is less than 50% in both upland and lowland systems. Most of applied N is lost to volatilization, leaching, denitrification and soil erosion. In addition, fertilizers account for almost half of the energy used in world agriculture, and the manufacture of N fertilizer is about 10 times more energy-intensive than that of P and K fertilizers. Therefore, improving N use efficiency of applied N fertilizer is important not only to improve yield and reduce cost of production but to avoid environmental pollution and to maintain sustainability of the cropping system. Crop production practices that can improve N use efficiency are liming of acid soils, use of proper sources, applying at adequate rates, use of suitable methods and time of application, use of crop rotation, use of cover crops, adopting conservation tillage systems, use of N efficient genotypes, and control of diseases, insects and weeds.