Submitted to: Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/22/2013
Publication Date: 11/1/2013
Publication URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/60293
Citation: Hwang, H.-S., Singh, M., Bakota, E.L., Winkler-Moser, J.K., Kim, S., Liu, S.X. 2013. Margarine from organogels of plant wax and soybean oil. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. 90:1705-1712.
Interpretive Summary: This study shows the first successful preparation of margarine from organogels that was formed with a plant wax and soybean oil. There has been an increasing number of reports about edible oil organogels as potential alternatives to solid fats containing trans fatty acids and a high content of saturated fatty acids. Organogels must be tested for suitability for incorporation into margarine since it was reported that the organogel with 12-hydroxystearic acid was deformed when it was mixed with an ingredient in margarine. Sunflower wax showed the most promising results among the three plant waxes tested in this study. It was found that the firmness of commercial spread could be achieved with about 2% sunflower wax in fat portion of the margarine formulation. This means that the margarine prepared with about 2% sunflower wax may find an application for a spread product in which no solid fat is added and healthy soybean oil takes 98% of the fat portion. This study presents an important progress in the research area of organogel and trans fat free/low saturated fat margarine.
Technical Abstract: Organogels obtained from plant wax and soybean oil tested for suitability for incorporation into margarine. Sunflower wax, rice bran wax and candelilla wax were evaluated. Candelilla wax showed phase separation after making the emulsion with the formulation used in this study. Rice bran wax showed relatively good firmness with the organogel, but dramatically lowered firmness for a margarine sample. Sunflower wax showed the greatest firmness for organogel and the margarine samples among the three plant waxes tested in this study. Firmness of the margarine containing 2-6% sunflower wax in soybean oil was similar to that of margarine containing 18-30% hydrogenated soybean oil in soybean oil. The firmness of commercial spread could be achieved with about 2% sunflower wax and that of commercial hard margarine could be achieved with about 10% of sunflower wax in the margarine formulation. Dropping point, DSC and solid fat content of the new margarine containing 2-6% sunflower wax showed a higher melting point than the commercial margarine and spreads.