Submitted to: Cereal Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/25/2011
Publication Date: 5/12/2011
Citation: Inglett, G.E., Chen, D., Berhow, M.A. 2011. Influence of jet-cooking Prowashonupana barley flour on phenolic composition, antioxidant activities, and viscoelastic properties. Cereal Chemistry. 88:315-320.
Interpretive Summary: Prowashonupana is a very special waxy type of barley with substantial soluble fiber that could have useful health benefits. The purpose of this research was to find advantages of the composition and a method of making it suitable for consumption. Jet-cooking Prowashonupana barley flour at various pH values gave slightly decreased free phenolic contents and free antioxidant activities, but significantly increased the bound phenolic contents and antioxidant activities, regardless of pH. It appears that jet-cooking had more influence than pH on phenolic contents and antioxidant activities. Gallic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid and p-coumaroyl-pentose were released in the jet cooked barley flour along with vitexin. Both jet-cooking and pH values had dramatic influences on water holding capacities and pasting properties. New and useful information on Prowashonupana barley flour influenced by jet-cooking at various pH values could be useful for new functional food ingredients with interesting new food applications.
Technical Abstract: The influence of jet-cooking Prowashonupana barley flour on total phenolic contents, antioxidant activities, water holding capacities, and viscoelastic properties was studied. Barley flour was jet-cooked without or with pH adjustment at 7, 9, or 11. Generally, the free phenolic content and antioxidant activity decreased after jet-cooking while the bound phenolic content and antioxidant significantly increased regardless of pH. Detectable levels of gallic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid and p-coumaroyl-pentose in the jet cooked barley flour hydrolysates along with vitexin were indentified among 21 phenolics by LC-ESI-Q-TOF- MS analysis. Jet-cooking at an elevated pH resulted in increased pasting viscosities. The oil content was decreased after jet-cooking and continued to decrease with increased pH values. Jet cooking dramatically increased water holding capacity from 179% for unprocessed flour to 643% for jet cooked flour without pH adjustment, and water holding capacity was greatly increased to 914% by jet-cooking at pH 11.