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Title: Dry bean genotype evaluation for growth, yield components and phosphorus use efficiency

item Baligar, Virupax

Submitted to: Journal of Plant Nutrition
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/26/2009
Publication Date: 10/15/2010
Citation: Fageria, N.K., Baligar, V.C., Moreira, A., Portes, T.A. 2010. Dry bean genotype evaluation for growth, yield components and phosphorus use efficiency. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 33:2167-2181.

Interpretive Summary: Dry beans along with rice are staple food sources for most of South America. In Brazil it is grown mostly on acidic soils and on these soils, phosphorus (P) is one of the most yield limiting factors for dry bean. Recovery efficiency of applied phosphorous fertilizer by crops grown on these soils is less than 20 percent. Therefore, higher amounts of phosphorous fertilizer are needed to increase yields. Such practices increase the cost of production. Identification of efficient phosphorus using dry bean genotypes would benefit the breeding of bean cultivars for low phosphorus soils. Twenty promising dry bean genotypes were evaluated for their phosphorus use efficiency. Yield components such as pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and weight of 100 beans were measured. The grain yield components effectively differentiated dry bean genotypes into efficient and inefficient phosphorus users. This information will be used by plant breeders to improve dry bean cultivars and by researchers and extension personnel to improve crop yields.

Technical Abstract: Dry beans along with rice are staple food for populations of South America. In this tropical region beans are grown on Oxisols and phosphorus is one of the most yield limiting factors for dry bean production. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate P use efficiency in 20 promising dry bean genotypes grown at deficient (25 mg P kg-1 soil) and sufficient (200 mg P kg-1) levels of soil P. Grain yields and yield components were significantly increased with P fertilization and, interspecific genotypic differences were observed for yield and yield components. The grain yield efficiency index (GYEI) had a highly significant quadratic association with grain yield. Based on GYEI most P use efficient genotypes were CNFP 8000, CNFP 10035, CNFP10104, CNFC 10410, CNFC 9461, CNFC 10467, CNFP 10109 and CNFP 10076, and most inefficient genotypes were CNFC 10438, CNFP 10120, CNFP 10103 and CNFC 10444. Shoot dry weight, number of pods per plant, 100-grain weights and number of seeds per pod were significantly positively correlated with grain yield. Hence, grain yield of dry bean can be improved with the improvement of these plant traits by adopting appropriate management practices. Soil pH, extractable P and Ca saturation were significantly influenced by P treatments. In general, based on regressions equations, the optimal pH value in water was 6.6, optimal P in Mehlich 1 extraction solution was 36 mg kg-1 and optimal Ca saturation value was 37% for maximal bean yield.