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Title: Characterization of Wild Prunus Yedoensis Analyzed by Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat and Chloroplast DNA

item Roh, Mark
item Cheong, Eun

Submitted to: Scientia Horticulturae
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/25/2007
Publication Date: 6/5/2007
Citation: Roh, M.S., Cheong, E.J., Choi, I-Y and Young, Y.H. 2007. Characterization of wild Prunus yedoensis analyzed by inter-simple sequence repeat and chloroplast DNA. Scientia Hort. doi:10.1016/J.scientia 2007.06.005.

Interpretive Summary: Yoshino cherry (Prunus × yedoensis) is one of the most popular ornamental Prunus species in landscapes around the world. There are debates on the differences between this species and a taxon from Korea. Some believe the Korean taxon is related to one of Yoshino cherry hybrids. Parentage of Yoshino cherry hybrids has also been confusing and was reported to be a hybrid between the double white-flowered P. speciosa and the single pink-flowered P. subhirtella. Based on the differences of amount of hairs on calyx lobes and shorter peduncles, P. yedoensis was considered different from Yoshino cherry hybrids. This study seeks to determine the taxonomic identity of Korean taxon and Japanese hybrids of Yoshino cherry using molecular markers and from chloroplast DNA. This study showed that Prunus japonica var. nakaii, P. buergeriana, and P. maximowiczii were not genetically related to P. yedoensis. Accessions belonging to each of P. serrulata var. spontanea, P. serrulata var. pubescence, and P. sargentii were not closely related, but were each closely related to P. yedoensis and P. ×yedoensis. In conclusion, it appears that the Korean taxon, P. yedoensis, can be considered different from Yoshino cherry hybrids.

Technical Abstract: This study was initiated to establish the relationships of the wild species of Prunus and to attempt clarify the identities of taxa referred to as P. yedoensis Matsum. that grows under natural environments in Jeju, Korea and of Yoshino cherry hybrids (cultivars of hybrid origin of P. × yedoensis) that grows only in cultivated conditions in Japan and to understand the status and difference between these two taxa. Prunus yedoensis and other species collected from natural habitats from Jeju, Korea and cultivated materials of Yoshino cherries from Tokyo and Washington, D.C., were analyzed with inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers, and sequence analysis of two chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) genes, rpl16 and trnL-trnF spacer. Depending on the source of Yoshino cherry, accessions show variations with ISSR and cpDNA. Prunus japonica var. nakaii (H. Lev.) Rehder, P. buergeriana Miq. P. maximowiczii Rupr. are not considered genetically related to P. yedoensis. Accessions belonging to each of P. serrulata var. spontanea (Maxim) E. H. Wilson, P. serrulata var. pubescens (Makino) Nakaii, and P. sargentii Rehder were not clustered together, but grouped closely to P. yedoensis and Yoshino cherry accessions. However, some Yoshino cherry accessions showed the same rpl16 haplotype of AA at the position of 113 and 206 which were found in four out of 21 P. yedoensis accessions. Seventeen accessions of P. yedoensis showed rpl16 haplotype of TA at these positions. Putative parental taxa for both P. yedoensis and Yoshino cherry hybrids could not be revealed by ISSR and nucleotide indels. However, P. yedoensis native to Korea can be considered different from Yoshino cherry of hybrid origin from Japan based on ISSR markers and rpl16 haplotypes. Therefore, it may be concluded that the Korean taxon currently referred to as P. yedoensis can be considered sufficiently distinct to warrant recognition as a distinct entity.