Submitted to: Weed Technology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/5/2005
Publication Date: 3/22/2006
Citation: Bryson, C.T., Fox, A.M., Byrd, J.D. 2006. Effects of temperature on wetland nightshade (solanum tampicense dunal) and its potential spread in the united states. Weed Technology 20:778-783.
Interpretive Summary: In the United States, the federal noxious weed wetland nightshade is restricted to areas in four south central Florida counties and on Garden Key in the Dry Tortugas. Charles Bryson, Stoneville, MS, and others discovered that wetland nightshade will survive and reproduce in areas much further north in the United States than currently occupied by this aggressive non-native invasive weed. These findings demonstrate the need for continued implementation of management strategies to prevent wetland nightshade dispersal into other areas of the United States.
Technical Abstract: Greenhouse, growth chamber, and winter survival studies were conducted at Stoneville, MS from 1996 to 2002 to determine growth, time to first flower, and winter survival of wetland nightshade. At 12 weeks after emergence and 11 weeks following transfer from greenhouse into the growth chambers, wetland nightshade plants had 58, 45, 48, and 4 cm heights, respectively; 24, 21, 21, and 12 nodes/plant, respectively; 62, 31, 36, and 21 leaves/plant, respectively; and 7.1, 3.9, 5.1, and 0.3 g/plant dry weights, respectively at temperatures of 26/36, 20/30, 14/24, and 8/18 (+ 0.5) C night/day with14 h of daylight. Flowering occurred at 85, 85, and 79 days after emergence at 14/24, 20/30, and 26/36 C night/day, respectively. Wetland nightshade plants did not flower at 8/18 C. From these data, wetland nightshade growth was adequate for flowering and fruit production in additional areas of the southeastern United States with night/day temperatures > 14/24 C. Winter survival for established wetland nightshade plants occurred (> 33%) in 5 of 6 yr (1996-2002) above water levels and 82% from 20 cm below the water surface.