Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/5/2004
Publication Date: 2/10/2005
Citation: Lehotay, S.J., Mastovska, K., Thiex, N. 2005. Detecting veterinary drug residues in feed and cattle. Improving the safety of fresh meat. J. Sofos (Ed.) Woodhead Publishing. Cambridge, UK. p.102-131.
Technical Abstract: The regulation of drug residues in animal-derived foods is an integral component of food safety programs worldwide. Furthermore, animal drugs are often administered through feed, thus formulation requirements and proper labeling must be upheld to promote lawful production, marketing, and use of the feed product. Analytical methods to monitor veterinary pharmaceuticals in feed and their residues in animal tissues are essential to help protect human and animal health, reduce impact on the environment, support the enforcement of laws and regulations (including labeling requirements, such as feed ingredients and certified organic foods), monitor consumer exposure to the drugs, and facilitate international trade of animal food products. Most veterinary drugs are not of acute toxicological concern, but some substances, such as nitrofurans, chloramphenicol, diethylstilbestrol, and clenbuterol, have been banned in most developed countries due to their demonstrated carcinogenicity. A percentage of humans can have severe allergic reactions to antibiotics, such as penicillin, which is an important reason for setting maximum residue (or tolerance) concentrations in food animal tissues. Another important justification for limiting antibiotic usage is to reduce the risk of pathogenic microorganisms becoming antibiotic resistant. Concern about endocrine disrupting effects has become another reason to regulate certain veterinary drug residues in food and feed. This chapter briefly describes the issues pertaining to animal drug usage on cattle and lists the analytical methods used for their detection in feed and bovine tissues.