Submitted to: Journal Of Reproduction, Fertility And Development
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/1/2004
Publication Date: 1/1/2005
Citation: Blomberg, L., Sonstegard, T.S., Van Tassell, C.P., Zuelke, K.A. 2005. Sage analysis of transitions in the porcine conceptus transcriptome during trophectoderm elongation [abstract]. Journal Of Reproduction, Fertility And Development. 17:257.
Technical Abstract: Rapid elongation of the pre-implantation conceptus trophectoderm between gestational days 11 and 12 represents a critical developmental period in swine. Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) in ovoid (Ovd; 7 mm diameter) and filamentous (Fil; 150 mm length) conceptuses has identified unique transcriptomes associated with these transitional states. The initial utility of SAGE prompted an investigation of the intermediate tubular conceptus (Tub; 15-20 mm length) as well as the development of micro-SAGE methodologies, small-amplified RNA-SAGE (SAR-SAGE) and PCR-amplified SAGE (m-SAGE), for future use with early pre-implantation conceptus stages. Total RNA from in vivo-derived Tub conceptuses was used to construct an unamplified SAGE library (Tub SAGE) and two micro-SAGE libraries (160X less template RNA) by SAR-SAGE and m-SAGE. Comparative analyses of the amplification proportionality between the Tub SAGE and amplified libraries, consisting of 12,000 tags each, demonstrated that SAR-SAGE was a more reliable amplification method. Seventy-five percent of the SAR-SAGE tags, in contrast to 43% of m-SAGE tags, had less than a 2-fold frequency difference when compared to Tub SAGE tags occurring at least 10 times in a library. The Tub SAGE library size was extended to a total of 42,415 tags representing 12,779 unique putative transcripts. A comparison of the Tub SAGE library tags and tags from previously generated Ovd and Fil SAGE libraries (NCBI GEO Acc. Nos. GSM24470 and GSM24471, respectively) yielded a total of 33,191 unique tags, of which, 3,575 tags (10.8%) were common to all three libraries. Statistical analysis of the tag frequencies revealed the differential expression of 479 tags between Ovd:Tub libraries and 362 tags between Tub:Fil libraries at a p<0.05 significance. The Tub SAGE tags were annotated following batch BLASTS against the TIGR porcine index database and then classified according to function. Real-time RT-PCR was used to confirm the differential expression patterns identified between Ovd:Tub, Ovd:Fil, and Fil:Tub. For example, the relative quantity of mRNA for steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, 1.0:6.4:11.1 (Ovd:Tub:Fil), and cytokeratin 8, 1.1:0.6:0.4 (Ovd:Tub:Fil) demonstrated a significant increase and decrease (p<0.05), respectively, throughout these three developmental stages. Based on their putative functional annotations, the differentially expressed genes revealed by SAGE are potentially involved in regulating embryo growth, cellular differentiation, apoptosis, steroidogenesis, and energy metabolism during embryo elongation. The present SAGE analyses have elucidated the tubular conceptus transcriptome and enabled the identification of genes that are differentially regulated during the twenty-four hour period that encompasses pig embryo elongation. Furthermore, the decreased template requirement of SAR-SAGE makes this technique a suitable option for SAGE analyses of early stage embryos where the sample is small and limited.