Submitted to: Home Page
Publication Type: Other
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/28/2003
Publication Date: 11/28/2003
Citation: Bhagwat, S.A., Holden, J.M., Haytowitz, D.B., Gebhardt, S.E., Eldridge, A., Dwyer, J., Peterson, J. 2003. Usda database for the flavonoid content of selected foods. Home Page. Available: http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp.
Interpretive Summary: Members of the scientific community, the media and the general public have become interested in the flavonoid content of foods due to their varied biological properties which include antioxidative and antimicrobial effects. These compounds have also been associated with posible anticarcinogenic, and/or cardioprotective effects. Flavonoid production in plants is enhaced by various stressors in plants, such as fungal or bacterial infection or exposure to UV radiation. A quick review of the article revealed that about 125 articles contained analytical flavonoid values. Further examination resulted in the rejection of 28 articles. The database now contains acceptable analytical values from 97 articles. From these articles we aggregated flavonoid data for 225 food items. Foods in the database include citrus fruits, berries, and other fruits; leafy greens, onions, peppers, and other vegetables; and teas, wine and chocolate. Data are presented for five subclasses of flavonoids: flavonols, flavones, flavanones, flavon-3-ols, and anthocyanidins. The mean, standard error, minimum and maximum values per 100 g, edible portion are presented for each flavonoid in a food. A confidence code and source of data are also provided. The database is available on NDL's website: http//www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp. This database represents the first compilation of flavonoids data for foods in the U.S. and is required to evaluate the relationships between the intake of various flavonoids and the development of cardio-vascular disease and other health conditions.
Technical Abstract: Recent interest by the scientific community in flavonoids in foods is attributed to the varied biological properties of flavonoids which include antioxidative, antimicrobial, and possibly anticarcinogenic, and/or cardioprotective effects. Therefore a food composition database for flavonoids in foods is required to evaluate associations between flavonoids intakes and risk factors for various diseases. An exhaustive literature review was conducted which yielded approximately 475 articles on flavonoids, published since 1970. The quality of these data were evaluated by applying NDL's expert system criteria. Ninety-seven articles contained analytical data which met the criteria for acceptability. This resulted in a database of flavonoid data on 225 foods, including fruits, vegetables, and teas. Values for teas are presented on a prepared or brewed basis. However, a separate table of dry tea is also provided. Data are presented for five subclasses of flavonoids: 1) flavonols [quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, isorhamnetin]; 2) Flavones: [luteolin, apigenin]; 3) Flavanones: hesperetin, naringenin, eriodictyol]; 4) Flavan-3-ols [(+)-catechin, (+)-gallocatechin, (-)-epicatechin, (-)-epigallocatechin, (-)-epicatechin 3-gallate, (-) epigallocatechin 3-gallate, theaflavin, theaflavin 3-gallate, theaflavin 3'-gallate, theaflavin 3,3' digallate, thearubigins]; and 5) Anthocyanidins [cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, pelargonidin, peonidin, petunidin]. The mean, standard error, minimum and maximum values per 100 g, edible portion are presented for each flavonoid in a food. A confidence code and source of data are also provided. The database is available on NDL's web site: http//www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp.