Submitted to: Journal of Food Composition and Analysis
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/15/2002
Publication Date: 12/20/2002
Citation: Li, B.W., Andrews, K.W., Pehrsson, P.R. 2002. Individual sugars, soluble, and insoluble dietary fiber contents of 70 High consumption foods. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 15:725-733.
Interpretive Summary: The U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) publishes representative nutrient data for foods in their Standard Reference Data Base. Currently, carbohydrate is determined by difference and reported for all applicable foods. Total dietary fiber data are provided for most foods. The Nutrient Data Laboratory, BHNRC, ARS, USDA has been updating and expanding the carbohydrate data. In response to many inquiries and requests for soluble and insoluble dietary fiber values in the early 1990's, a study was conducted to have a large number of foods analyzed for these specific food components and individual sugars. Selection of foods was based on consumption information from the 1989-91 USDA Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals. Approximately 70 foods were procured, prepared and analyzed by a commercial laboratory according to a detailed work plan written into an USDA contract. Freeze-dried subsamples of the same foods were stored at -20 degreeC, and analyzed later in the Food Composition Laboratory at the Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center for verification and comparison of analytical methods. The data reported here on individual sugars and dietary fiber (total, soluble, and insoluble) will be useful to nutritionists, health professionals, analysts, and consumers.
Technical Abstract: As part of the continuous efforts of the Nutrient Data Laboratory, ARS, USDA in updating and expanding the carbohydrate data in their database, foods were selected based on dietary fiber content and frequency of consumption. They were analyzed by a commercial testing laboratory under an USDA contract. Individual sugars, soluble and insoluble dietary fiber values of 70 foods in six food groups were reported. Foods included 14 baked products, 10 cereal grains and pastas, 19 fruits,7 legumes, 10 cooked vegetables, and 10 raw vegetables. Except for cereal grains/ pasta and legumes, most other foods contained fructose and glucose; sucrose was found in almost all except baked products, which usually contained maltose. Fruits contained the most total sugar and legumes the least. Legumes contained the highest amount of total dietary fiber. The percent of soluble and insoluble fiber varied across food groups, even within each group. Comparison of data from the commercial laboratory with those of the same food analyzed by the Food Composition Laboratory using different methods indicated there was good agreement between high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) and gas chromatographic (GC) methods for individual sugars. Total dietary fiber as calculated from the sum of soluble and insoluble fiber according to AOAC Method 991.43 and total dietary fiber from direct analysis using a single enzyme-gravimetric method showed high variability for 3 of the 6 food groups, but good agreement for others.