|WOODS, EMILIE J|
Submitted to: Intl Symposium on the Role of Soy in Preventing/Treating Chronic Disease
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/7/2001
Publication Date: N/A
Technical Abstract: Research has just begun to determine how the phytochemicals found in foods work to prevent certain chronic diseases such as cancer. Interest in fractions from soy containing isoflavones has grown due to their functional implication as phytoestrogens and anticancer agents in human diets. However, many of these fractions contain complex mixtures of potentially active phytochemicals, including proteins, carbohydrates, phenolic acids, up to three different glycoside forms of three separate isoflavone aglycones, and up to twenty different glycoside forms of two to three sapogenol aglycones. Methods for the separation, identification and quantification of isoflavones and saponins in soy extracts have been enhanced to yield pure phytochemicals for bioassays and more accurate results. For bioassay assessment of these compounds, a microplate assay measuring DNA damage in cultured mammalian cells using a modified single gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay was used to determine the repression of 2-acetoxyacetylaminofluorene (2-AAAF) induced damage, and another microplate assay was used to examine the suppression of growth of cultured human HT-29 colon cancer cells. Daidzein and glycitin expressed antigenotoxic activity but genistin and genistein enhanced DNA damage. The isoflavones all demonstrated growth supression of the HT-29 cells, but differed in the range they suppress the growth. The soy B group saponins have been shown to effectively repress 2-AAAF-induced damage. Many biological studies have been conducted with isolated fractions from plant materials, but the actual functional mechanisms cannot be determined unless each is evaluated.