Submitted to: Annual Meeting and Expo of the American Oil Chemists' Society
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/6/2001
Publication Date: N/A
Technical Abstract: Research has just begun to determine how the phytochemicals found in foods work to prevent certain chronic diseases such as cancer. Interest in fractions from soy containing isoflavones has grown due to their functional implication as phytoestrogens and anticancer agents in human diets. However, many of these fractions contain complex mixtures of potentially active phytochemicals, including proteins, carbohydrates, phenolic acids, up to three different glycoside forms of three separate isoflavone aglycones, and up to 20 different glycoside forms of two to three saponogenol agllycones. Methods for the separation, identification, and quantification of isoflavones and saponins in soy extracts have been enhanced to yield pure phytochemicals for bioassays and more accurate results. For bioassay assessment of these compounds, a microplate assay measuring DNA damage in cultured mammalian cells using a modified single gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay was used to determine the repression of 2-acetoxyacetylaminofluorene (2-AAAF) induced damage, and another microplate assay was used to examine the suppression of growth of cultured human HT-29 human colon cancer cells. Daidzein and glycitin expressed antigenotoxic activity, but genistin and genistein enhanced DNA damage. The isoflavones all demonstrated growth suppression of the HT-29 cells, but differed in the range they suppress the growth. The soy B group saponins have been shown to effectively repress 2-AAAF-induced damage. Biological studies have been conducted with isolated fractions from plant materials, but the actual functional mechanisms cannot be determined unless each is evaluated individually.