Submitted to: Journal of Japanese Society of Grassland Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/15/2001
Publication Date: 3/1/2002
Citation: KINDIGER, B.K. 2002. CALLUS INDUCTION AND PLANT REGENERATION IN TALL WHEATGRASS (THINOPYRUM PONTICUM) (PODP.) (BARKW. & DEWEY). JOURNAL OF JAPANESE SOCIETY OF GRASSLAND SCIENCE. Volume(48)p. 362-365. Interpretive Summary: The cool season forage tall wheatgrass is a perennial, cross-pollinated bunchgrass which is adapted to high saline soils and dry regions of the southern Great Plains of the United States. However, tall wheatgrass is characterized by an extremely large genome and high chromosome number which makes improvement through classic breeding methods cumbersome and difficult. Research methods emphasizing plant cell culture and plant regeneration of 'Jose' tall wheatgrass were conducted to determine the optimum tissue culture conditions which could be directed toward its improvement a cool-season grass forage. The research identified an optimum procedure for achieving cell culture inducement and subsequent plant regeneration. This research is valuable to plant breeders and geneticists in the public and private sector interested in developing and improving tall wheatgrass germplasm as a grass forage species.
Technical Abstract: Elytriga ponticum, a persistent cool-season perennial forage species introduced from Europe has shown value in the south Central United States for erosion control and as a pasture/range species for grazing livestock; consequently, breeding efforts are underway to generate and select germplasm with greater forage potential. The cultivar 'Jose' tall wheatgrass is one variety with attributes and qualities that can make it a valuable forage in this region. However, E. ponticum is characterized by an extremely large genome and high ploidy (2n=10x=70) which make improvement through classic breeding and selection methods extremely difficult. New methods are required to circumvent or at least reduce these breeding obstacles to accelerate the pace of improvement and release of new varieties from this cool-season forage germplasm. Research methods emphasizing plant cell culture and plant regeneration of 'Jose' tall wheatgrass were conducted to determine the optimum tissue culture conditions which could be directed toward its improvement as a cool-season grass forage. Three types of Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal salt media were identified which allow for callus induction, plant regeneration and root formation. The eventual production of large numbers of plantlets from a single callus could provide an important tool for mass clonal propagation of tall wheatgrass varieties and provide an opportunity for the genetic manipulation and transformation of this species.