Submitted to: Proceedings of Southern Weed Science Society
Publication Type: Abstract only
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/1/1999
Publication Date: 2/1/2000
Citation: Williams, R.D., Hoagland, R.E., Mallik, M. 2000. Phytotoxicity of mimosine and albizziin on weeds and crops. Proceedings of Southern Weed Science Society. 53:204. Interpretive Summary: Abstract Only.
Technical Abstract: Mimosa, or silk tree, can be used as an inter-cropped woody species in pastures to provide additional forage for sheep and goats. Mimosine and albizziin are non-protein amino acids produced by certain legume species. Both compounds are inhibitors of pyridoxyl phosphate, an important cofactor of various enzymes, including transaminases. Mimosa contains mimosine, but the activity of this compound on seed germination and seedling growth is not well documented. Both compounds were tested for effects on seed germination, seedling growth and cotyledon greening of hemp sesbania, sicklepod and wheat. Albizziin did not inhibit germination. Mimosine (10^-3 M) significantly reduced sicklepod and wheat seed germination. Shoot lengths of all species were reduced by mimosine (10^-3 M). Sicklepod and wheat shoot length were reduced by albizziin (10^-3 M). Mimosine (10^-3 M) reduced root elongation of all species, but only albizziin (10^-3 M) reduced sicklepod and wheat root length. There was no effect of either compound at 10-5 M or 10-4 M on seed germination or seedling growth. Albizziin reduced chlorophyll content in hemp sesbania by 20%, 27% and 32 % at 10^-5 M, 10^-4 M and 10^-3 M, respectively. Similar results were obtained with sicklepod. Mimosine reduced chlorophyll content in hemp sesbania by 10%, 52%, and 99% at 10^-5 M, 10^-4 M and 10^-3 M, respectively. However, the effect of mimosine on sicklepod was slightly less, and reduced chlorophyll content by 10%, 32% and 64%. Generally, both compounds exhibited allelopathic activity on these species. Overall, mimosine was the more active compound in these bioassays.