Location: Functional Foods Research2019 Annual Report
Objective 1. Identify and integrate, for commercial use, food grain bioactive components that promote health beyond their basic nutritional values and examine their structures and interactions between biologically active constituents and other nutritional components in functional foods. Sub-objective 1A. Identify, extract, and develop new health promoting bioactive hydrocolloidal fractions and their commercilizable products from gluten-free grains and ancient grains by processing, separating, and enzymatic modification technologies. Sub-objective 1B. Characterize the biological activity of the new health promoting bioactive hydrocolloids and soluble dietary fibers compositions from gluten-free grains and ancient grains. Objective 2. Enable new commercial processing technologies that protect, stabilize, or maintain the activity of sensitive bioactive components throughout processing, handling, and storage. Sub-objective 2A. Examine and evaluate various enzyme systems for fragmenting gluten-free grains and ancient grains and their products including flours, hulls, and particle components along with analysis and testing for antioxidant components and hydrocolloidal components with collaborators from academia, industry, and other ARS scientists. Sub-objective 2B. Examine microstructural and macrostructural properties of processed functional fractions/extracts from gluten-free grains including ancient grains using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and various particle scattering methods, and investigate the influences of these structures on interaction between functional components and flavors in food matrices and rheological properties (ultimately to sensory properties such as texture and mouthfeel and processbility of the functional materials in food processing). Sub-objective 2C. Evaluate the newly-created health-promoting compositions from gluten-free grains and ancient grains for their functional qualities in food including taste, texture, and color. Engage end user stakeholder groups in collaborative projects for technology transfer activities of the technologies and associated products. After the developed bioactive hydrocolloids and soluble dietary fibers are available from pilot plant production, evaluations will be carried out with various food applications, such as beverages, baked goods, and meats.
The long term goal of this project is to promote optimal health and wellness by creating innovative and economically viable food ingredients from gluten-free grains including some ancient grains. The hypothesis is that conversion of grain milling products into bioactive functional ingredients will lead to creating natural hydrocolloids, clean-labeled bioactive compound fractions or concentrates, and related composites that are suitable and desirable for use in functional foods. We base that hypothesis on the following observations: 1) milled grain products contain large quantities of bioactive and phyto-protective compounds, 2) research on phytochemical enrichment and extraction has proven that physical, chemical, and enzymatic treatment can produce phyto-protective and bioactive rich materials as food ingredients. Preliminary studies indicated that they did not appear to interfere with processing/manufacturing properties and sensory profiles in food formulations. Based on these observations, we will conduct basic and applied research on development of functional ingredients from mainly gluten-free ancient grains and related byproducts by determining their processing parameters and structure/property characteristics. Furthermore, structural and physical properties will also be determined by using microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, rapid visco analyzer (RVA), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). They also will be evaluated for their biological activities, chemical, and processing properties for applications in functional foods. The research will build upon our prior successes with the Trim products, a series of widely commercialized functional ingredients produced from cereal grains. This research will help the continued advancement in food science that has moved the food industry along towards creating foods that promote optimal health and wellness.
The long-term goal of this project is to promote optimal health and wellness by creating innovative and economically viable food ingredients from gluten-free grains including some ancient grains. The project is based on the following observable facts: 1) milled grain products contain large quantities of bioactive and phyto-protective compounds, and 2) research on phytochemical enrichment and extraction has proven that physical, chemical, and enzymatic treatment can produce phyto-protective and bioactive rich materials as food ingredients. Based on these observations, we conducted basic and applied research on development of functional ingredients from mainly gluten-free ancient grains and related byproducts by determining their processing parameters and structure/property characteristics. Furthermore, structural and physical properties were, and are being determined by using microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, rapid visco analyzer (RVA), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). These were also evaluated for their rheological properties, chemical, and processing properties for applications in functional foods. The research builds upon our prior successes with the innovative dietary fiber products, a series of widely commercialized functional ingredients produced from cereal grains. This research ultimately will help the continued advancement in food science that has moved the food industry along towards creating foods that promote optimal health and wellness. The recent research has generated knowledge and technologies for developing new functional food opportunities, functional food ingredients, market applications, and products with increased health benefits. Research conducted on the ancient grains, such as amaranth, teff, and quinoa, which have special nutrition and gluten free qualities compared with common ordinary grains, has demonstrated the potential role of ancient grains as functional food ingredients. In contrast to wheat and rice, ancient grains are whole grains with their bran, germ, and endosperm which make them more nutritious. Unlike the protein found in wheat and rye, ancient grains amaranth, quinoa, and teff contain a promising source of protein for people that are sensitive to gluten since these are gluten free. Therefore, these studies are important for the health of many Americans. Research was continued on innovative composites containing pulses or other legumes and amino acids from ancient grains. These new composites have special amino acids and nutritional components. The new bioactive components are found in our new composites prepared from ancient grains and legume products. These studies provide the food industry with the opportunity to add new bioactive ingredients to their existing food product lines, including soluble fibers, minerals, and complete essential amino acids. New and expanded markets for cereal grains including the utilization of agricultural by-products are important for improving the profitability of American agriculture. Applications were explored on the uses of processed and fractionated components of milling byproducts for non-food applications at the commercial level. Innovative bread and other bakery products containing amaranth were developed for increasing health benefits and improving textures. Novel composites of ancient grains and pulses, which are equally healthful and have complementary amino acid profiles vis a vis ancient grains, are being tested and studied to develop super functional food ingredients that are nutritionally complete and functional in various food formulations. These innovative amaranth-containing baked products have nutritional and textual qualities that are comparable to those existing all-wheat baked goods. Research was also conducted on chemical analytical methods. Dietary fiber, free and bound phenolic and antioxidant activities were studied for selected gluten-free ancient grains. The results reported useful information on health benefits of functional foods. New studies were initiated on processing composites in the pilot plant. The effect of thermo-mechanical processing was studied on yield, qualities, and textures of hydrocolloids and soluble fibers. The new health promoting bioactive soluble fibers were evaluated and characterized. A study was also conducted on the antioxidant effect of amino acids derived from the milling byproducts on frying oils.
1. Many edible legumes contain high amounts of proteins, fibers, minerals and vitamins. ARS scientists in Peoria, Illinois, evaluated breads made from wheat flour partially substituted with soybean, navy bean, and lupine flours at 10%, 20%, and 30% levels. The physicochemical properties of breads were measured and compared with the control (made from 100% wheat flour). Statistical analysis was used to assess the significance of the differences. The breads fortified with soybean, lupin and navy bean flours showed remarkable springiness, like the breads made from wheat flour. However, the higher amount of substitution increased the firmness of the breads, probably due to the incorporation of additional fibers and proteins into the formulations. Compared to wheat bread, the volumes of 90:10 wheat-soybean, wheat-lupin, and wheat-navy bean breads decreased about 7%, 2%, and 10%, respectively. Higher substitution levels may result in a higher reduction in volume for all legumes tested. The volume reduction as a result of legume substitution appears to be navy bean flour > soybean flour > lupine flour. The inclusion of legumes in the bread formulations imparts a slightly darker crust color and crumb color except for breads with the soybean flour substitution. Lupin appears to be the best substitution candidate among the legumes tested for fortified bread making. Lupin can be presented as a high-value protein source in developing marketable foods for health-conscious consumers. This study could potentially help food companies diversify their plant-based protein sources to meet consumers’ demand for clean-label, natural, and meatless food products.
2. Development of functional food products and non-food applications using soy hulls and other grain hulls/bran. Soy hulls and other grain bran/hulls are milled and fractionated to produce different fractions with unique physiochemical properties for food and non-food applications. Protein extraction from soy hulls has been conducted and evaluated for their uses in baked food products. ARS scientists in Peoria, Illinois, have been testing amino acids from soy hulls and grains as natural antioxidants in frying oils and some of these amino acids showed to be good candidates for use as antioxidants in frying oil. The comprehensive uses of soy hulls and other byproducts of grain milling operations not only improve the economic prospective of grain millers and oil seed crushers through development of value-added products, but also reduce food waste in the agricultural sector of the U.S. economy.
3. Amaranth grain is one of the ancient grains that has been “rediscovered” by the health-conscious public. The amaranth is nutritious in many ways but does not have sufficient amount of one essential amino acid, lysine. Like many in the legume family, pulses contain excellent amount of lysine, in addition to many other nutrients and it is only logical to conclude that the combination of amaranth and pulses will provide the completed needs of essential amino acids for human health. In the studies, ARS scientists in Peoria, Illinois, used several bean flours to blend with amaranth to form gluten-free breads using amaranth flour combined with 15% or 30% soybean, lupin, or navy bean flour, respectively. Amaranth and bean flours exhibited higher water holding capacity than whole wheat flour. The pasting property of amaranth flour was lower than that of whole wheat flour but higher than bean flours. All blends revealed shear thinning properties that are important for mouthfeel and industrial applications. Volumes of breads using amaranth-soy 85:15 and 70:30 and amaranth-lupin 85:15 were larger than amaranth bread, and had less reductions compared to whole wheat bread. The amaranth bread and breads substituted with soybean, lupin and navy bean flours showed significantly higher or similar springiness compared to the whole wheat flour breads because of their high proteins and water holding capacity. The firmness of bread using amaranth-soy 85:15 and 70:30, and amaranth-lupin 85:15 was improved by amaranth, which was very close to whole wheat bread. Amaranth breads with bean flours added high-value plant protein and nutrients in foods along with enhancing health benefits compared to the gluten-free bread using starches currently on market. In addition to amaranth-based bread, work is being performed to use amaranth for noodles. As the health-conscious public is interested in ancient grains such as amaranth, noodles made from amaranth grain will provide the food industry with the knowledge and information of turning these healthy grains into food products that consumers enjoy.
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