Location: Food Surveys Research Group2015 Annual Report
The overall objective of this project is to maintain and enhance the components of the USDA Dietary Intake Data System to assure that the dietary collection method, the USDA Automated Multiple Pass Method (AMPM), and the supporting systems and databases result in the collection of dietary data that are scientifically sound, accurate, and valid. Objective 1. Conduct research and disseminate data on dietary intakes of the U.S. population through nationwide surveys. Sub-objective 1-1. Oversee dietary data collection and coding. Sub-objective 1-2. Conduct data review and data processing. Sub-objective 1-3. Compile data and provide documentation for public release. Objective 2. Maintain and update supporting survey-related databases based upon scientifically sound research and utilization of technological innovations. Sub-objective 2-1. Update and enhance FNDDS to support the WWEIA data release and research needs. Sub-objective 2-2. Develop and update special purpose databases to support research and policy needs. Objective 3. Assess and update dietary data collection methods and quality control procedures to enhance accuracy of dietary survey data. Sub-objective 3-1. Enhance the protocol to track and identify market changes in foods and beverages to inform dietary data collection methodology. Sub-objective 3-2. Enhance the accuracy and precision of dietary survey data to meet research needs through improvements to data collection methods. Sub-objective 3-3. Document and report changes to dietary data collection methods in concert with WWEIA data releases. Objective 4. Analyze and interpret results from nationwide dietary surveys focusing research on topics to include nutritional adequacy of the American population and at-risk sub-groups, dietary patterns, interrelationships between food component intakes, public health nutritional concerns, and/or policy implications. Sub-objective 4-1. Assess and report on dietary status and nutritional adequacy of U.S. population and population subgroups. Sub-objective 4-2. Serve as expert resource in use of the dietary survey data.
The USDA AMPM is being used to collect 10,000 dietary recalls yearly in What We Eat In America, the dietary interview component of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The Food Surveys Research Group, having the lead responsibility for the dietary assessment component of NHANES, will focus on developing and implementing methods such that 1) the dietary collection method collects accurate data and is valid, 2) the data collected meet stakeholder needs and are released in a timely fashion, 3) the systems for data collection and processing are technologically advanced and efficient, 4) the dietary databases to support data analyses are scientifically sound and current so as to reflect the U.S. food supply at the time of data collection, 5) the data are interpreted and reported to address critical and pressing policy issues of the time, and 6) the applications developed for collection and processing are made available to the fullest extent possible. Special purpose databases to support specialized research policy needs, including the Food Patterns Equivalents Database used to assess American diets in relation to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, will be developed and maintained.
Through an ongoing collaboration with the National Center for Health Statistics, DHHS, the Food Surveys Research Group (FSRG) has the lead role for dietary data collection and processing of What We Eat in America (WWEIA), NHANES. Web release of WWEIA, NHANES 2013-2014 is on schedule for 2016, providing the seventh release of national dietary data from this collaboration. The new data will provide information on dietary intakes of 10,000 individuals based on 24-hour dietary recalls weighted to be representative of the population. The corresponding Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS) 2013-14, used to analyze dietary intakes, will also be released in 2016. The FNDDS, used to analyze dietary intakes from WWEIA and by nutrition researchers in their dietary studies, will include a 65-nutrient profile for each of more than 13,000 foods and beverages. FSRG conducted quality control oversight for dietary data collection, coding, and processing for WWEIA, NHANES 2015. The review and update of questions and response options for 36 pathways in the USDA 5-step Automated Multiple-Pass Method (AMPM), used to collect 24-hour dietary recalls in WWEIA, was also completed for the 2015 and 2016 data collection years. This review was the largest to the AMPM since it has been used in WWEIA, NHANES with more than a quarter of the 132 pathways updated. To ensure that supporting survey food databases are current and reflect changes in the U.S. food market, selected food and beverage categories were reviewed to check for new foods, changes to current foods in the database, and new portion sizes. Analysis of the WWEIA data was completed to construct dietary data briefs and research articles on a variety of topics including: breakfast, lunch, and dinner in America; beverage intakes; beverage intakes related to smoking status; trends in sodium intake; trends and use of discretionary salt at the table and in cooking; intakes of sodium and potassium, and assessing sodium/potassium ratios; vegetable intakes of children; intakes of FPED components; comparison of methods to estimate fruit and vegetable intakes; and trends in yogurt intake. The briefs and research articles are in various stages of peer review and finalization. The WWEIA Food Categories 2011-2012 was developed and released online to provide an application to analyze foods and beverages as consumed in the American diet. Each of the food and beverage items that can be reported in the national survey is sorted into approximately 150 unique and mutually exclusive food categories. Designed to be flexible, the categories can be combined as necessary to address specific research questions. A new version of the WWEIA Food Categories is produced for each 2-year release cycle of NHANES and available on the FSRG Web site www.ars.usda.gov/nea/bhnrc/fsrg. Potential uses of the WWEIA Food Categories include development of food guidance programs and educational materials, monitoring food intake, and identifying food trends. A Prototype Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (Prototype FNDDS) was developed as a proof of concept to demonstrate that data can be moved electronically from food manufacturers into the FNDDS. Label data in electronic format for a small selection of food products from 5 companies were provided to ARS through the Partnership for Public Health: Branded Food Products Database. The partnership is composed of USDA/ARS, the International Life Sciences Institute North America, and the Agricultural Technology Innovation Partnership Foundation. Label information included the manufacturer and brand, the Nutrition Facts Panel data, ingredients, serving size description and weight in grams, and dates for when a product is available, when it is discontinued, and when it is changed. Food manufacturers initiate the process when they put selected data about their foods in GS1, a global supply and trading system. Data are then sent through the Partnership for Public Health and incorporated into the Prototype FNDDS. Continuing the work of providing branded food product label data by food manufacturers and incorporating these data into FNDDS by ARS will greatly enhance dietary intake assessment in WWEIA, NHANES. The Food Patterns Equivalents Databases (FPED) for 2011-2012 were completed and released on the FSRG Web site www.ars.usda.gov/nea/bhnrc/fsrg. The FPED corresponds with specific 2-year data releases of WWEIA, NHANES to provide the analytical basis for researchers to evaluate diets based on the recommendations of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. This release has several products including a number of databases and summary table sets on the mean intakes of the 37 Food Patterns components by 23 age-gender and socioeconomic subgroups.
1. Release of national estimates on summary dietary data tables. For each 2-year survey data release, What We Eat in America (WWEIA), National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) WWEIA, NHANES dietary intake data are analyzed and results released on the Web including 40 summarized nutrient intake tables. Further analysis has been conducted by ARS researchers in the Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Beltsville, Maryland, resulting in the release of an additional 16 summarized tables. These additional tables report nutrient intakes per 1000 kilocalories from food and beverages and from full service restaurants, quick service restaurants, and all restaurants. These two new sets of tables will facilitate quick comparisons of nutrient intakes between the age/gender, race/ethnicity, and income groups. Data tables summarizing dietary intakes of the U.S. population can readily be used by government groups, nutrition researchers, and the general public. All summarized data tables are accessible from www.ars.usda.gov/nea/bhnrc/fsrg.
2. Release of national estimates of daily intakes of Food Pattern components based on WWEIA, NHANES 2011-2012. Foods and beverages reported in national dietary surveys have been disaggregated into 37 Food Pattern components in order to report on amounts consumed of those components. Four sets of tables have been released on the Web that summarize food and beverage intakes across the 37 Food Pattern components for 23 age-gender and socioeconomic groups for national dietary survey data conducted in 2011-2012. These estimates provide unique data to evaluate food and beverage intakes of Americans compared to recommendations of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The Food Patterns Equivalents Database (FPED) that converts foods reported in the 2011-2012 survey as well as the Methodology and User Guide for FPED were also released on the Web; all are accessible along with the data tables from www.ars.usda.gov/nea/bhnrc/fsrg.
3. Release of the WWEIA Food Categories. Each of the nearly 8,000 foods and beverages in the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies has been linked to one of 150 WWEIA Food Categories. The WWEIA Food Categories provide an application for analyzing foods and beverages as consumed in the American diet. WWEIA Food Categories for 2011-2012 dietary data for WWEIA, NHANES were released on the Web and are accessible from www.ars.usda.gov/nea/bhnrc/fsrg.
Martin, C.L., Montville, J.B., Steinfeldt, L.C., Omolewa Tomobi, G., Heendeniya, K.Y., Adler, M.E., Moshfegh, A.J. 2014. The USDA Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies, 2011-2012. Worldwide Web Site: Food Surveys Research Group. Available: www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=12089.
Moshfegh, A.J., Anand, J., Goldman, J.D., Steinfeldt, L.C., Montville, J.B., Enns, C.W., Heendeniya, K.Y., Martin, C.L., Sebastian, R.S., Rhodes, D.G., Lacomb, R.P. 2014. What We Eat in America, NHANES 2011-2012: Documentation and Data Files. Worldwide Web Site: Food Surveys Research Group. Available: www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=18354.
Hoy, M.K., Goldman, J.D. 2014. Dietary fiber intake of the U.S. population, What We Eat in America, NHANES 2009-2010. Worldwide Web Site: Food Surveys Research Group. Available: www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=19476.
Hoy, M.K., Goldman, J.D. 2014. Calcium intake of the U.S. population, What We Eat in America, NHANES 2009-2010. Worldwide Web Site: Food Surveys Research Group. Available: www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=19476.
Rhodes, D.G., Clemens, J.C., Goldman, J.D., LaComb, R.P., Moshfegh, A.J. 2014. 2011-2012 What We Eat in America, NHANES Tables 1-40. Worldwide Web Site: Food Surveys Research Group. Available: www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=18349.
Rhodes, D.G., Clemens, J.C., Adler, M.E., Goldman, J.D., Moshfegh, A.J. 2015. What We Eat in America Food Categories, 2011-2012. Worldwide Web Site: Food Surveys Research Group. Available: www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=23429.
Sebastian, R.S., Goldman, J.D., Martin, C.L., Steinfeldt, L.C., Enns, C.W., Moshfegh, A.J. 2014. Flavonoid Values for USDA Survey Foods and Beverages 2007-2008: Provisional Flavonoid Addendum, FNDDS 4.1 and Flavonoid Intake Data, WWEIA, NHANES 2007-2008. Worldwide Web Site: Food Surveys Research Group. Available: www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=25102.
Bowman, S.A., Clemens, J.C., Friday, J.E., Thoerig, R.C., Moshfegh, A.J. 2014. Food Patterns Equivalents Intakes from Food: Mean Amounts Consumer per Individual, What We Eat in America, NHANES 2011-12; Tables 1-4. Worldwide Web Site: Food Surveys Research Group. Available: www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=23871.
Bowman, S.A., Clemens, J.C., Friday, J.E., Thoerig, R.C., Moshfegh, A.J. 2014. Food Patterns Equivalents Database 2011-12: Methodology and User Guide. Worldwide Web Site: Food Surveys Research Group. Available: www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=23871.
Rhodes, D.G., Clemens, J.C., Goldman, J.D., Lacomb, R.P., Moshfegh, A.J. 2015. Nutrient Intakes per 1000 Kilocalories: 2011-2012 What We Eat in America, NHANES Tables 41-44. Worldwide Web Site: Food Surveys Research Group. Available: www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=18349.
Rhodes, D.G., Clemens, J.C., Goldman, J.D., Lacomb, R.P., Moshfegh, A.J. 2015. Nutrient Intakes from Restaurants: 2011-2012 What We Eat in America, NHANES Tables 45-56. Worldwide Web Site: Food Surveys Research Group. Available: www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=18349.
Steinfeldt, L.C., Martin, C.L., Rhodes, D.G., Yirenkyi, K.M., Mattey, P., LaComb, R.P., Moshfegh, A.J. 2015. Prototype Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies: Branded Food Products Database for Public Health Proof of Concept. Worldwide Web Site: Food Surveys Research Group. Available: www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=25126.
Moshfegh, A.J. 2015. Food consumption in the United States. In: Neff, R., Editor. Introduction to the U.S. Food System, Public Health, Environment, and Equity. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. p.373-398.
Sebastian, R.S., Enns, C.W., Goldman, J.D., Hoy, M.K., Moshfegh, A.J. 2015. Sandwiches are major contributors of sodium in the diets of American adults: Results from What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. 115(2):272-277.
Ahuja, J.K., Pehrsson, P.R., Haytowitz, D.B., Wasswa-Kintu, S., Nickle, M.S., Showell, B.A., Thomas, R.G., Roseland, J.M., Williams, J.R., Khan, M., Nguyen, Q., Hoy, K., Martin, C.L., Rhodes, D.G., Moshfegh, A.J., Gillespie, C., Gunn, J., Merritt, R., Cogswell, M. 2015. Monitoring sodium in commercially processed foods from stores and restaurants. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 101:622-631.
Maalouf, J., Cogswell, M.E., Yuan, K., Martin, C.L., Gunn, J.P., Pehrsson, P.R., Merritt, R., Bowman, B. 2015. Top sources of dietary sodium from birth to 24 months, United States, 2003-2010. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 101(5):1021-1028.
Freedman, L.S., Commins, J.M., Moler, J.E., Willett, W., Tinker, L.F., Subar, A.F., Spiegelman, D., Rhodes, D.G., Potischman, N., Neuhouser, M.L., Moshfegh, A.J., Kipnis, V., Arab, L., Prentice, R.L. 2015. Pooled results from five validation studies of dietary self-report instruments using recovery biomarkers for potassium and sodium intake. American Journal of Epidemiology. 181(7)473-487. DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwu325.
Sebastian, R.S., Enns, C.W., Goldman, J.D., Martin, C.L., Steinfeldt, L.C., Moshfegh, A.J. 2015. A new database facilitates characterization of flavonoid intake, sources, and positive associations with diet quality among U.S. adults. Journal of Nutrition. 145(6):1239-48. DOI: 10.3945/jn.115.213025.
Gillespie, C., Malouf, J., Yuan, K., Cogswell, M.E., Gunn, J., Levings, J., Moshfegh, A.J., Ahuja, J.K., Merritt, R. 2014. Sodium content in US packaged foods 2009. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 101: 344-353.
Dwyer, J.T., Woteki, C., Bailey, R., Britten, P., Carriquiry, A., Gaine, P.C., Miller, D., Moshfegh, A., Murphy, M.M., and Smith Edge, M. 2014. Fortification: New findings and implications. Nutrition Reviews. 72:127-141.