Location: Food Surveys Research Group2014 Annual Report
The overall objective of this project is to maintain and enhance the components of the USDA Dietary Intake Data System to assure that the dietary collection method, the USDA Automated Multiple Pass Method (AMPM), and the supporting systems and databases result in the collection of dietary data that are scientifically sound, accurate, and valid. Objective 1. Conduct research and disseminate data on dietary intakes of the U.S. population through nationwide surveys. Sub-objective 1-1. Oversee dietary data collection and coding. Sub-objective 1-2. Conduct data review and data processing. Sub-objective 1-3. Compile data and provide documentation for public release. Objective 2. Maintain and update supporting survey-related databases based upon scientifically sound research and utilization of technological innovations. Sub-objective 2-1. Update and enhance FNDDS to support the WWEIA data release and research needs. Sub-objective 2-2. Develop and update special purpose databases to support research and policy needs. Objective 3. Assess and update dietary data collection methods and quality control procedures to enhance accuracy of dietary survey data. Sub-objective 3-1. Enhance the protocol to track and identify market changes in foods and beverages to inform dietary data collection methodology. Sub-objective 3-2. Enhance the accuracy and precision of dietary survey data to meet research needs through improvements to data collection methods. Sub-objective 3-3. Document and report changes to dietary data collection methods in concert with WWEIA data releases. Objective 4. Analyze and interpret results from nationwide dietary surveys focusing research on topics to include nutritional adequacy of the American population and at-risk sub-groups, dietary patterns, interrelationships between food component intakes, public health nutritional concerns, and/or policy implications. Sub-objective 4-1. Assess and report on dietary status and nutritional adequacy of U.S. population and population subgroups. Sub-objective 4-2. Serve as expert resource in use of the dietary survey data.
The USDA AMPM is being used to collect 10,000 dietary recalls yearly in What We Eat In America, the dietary interview component of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The Food Surveys Research Group, having the lead responsibility for the dietary assessment component of NHANES, will focus on developing and implementing methods such that 1) the dietary collection method collects accurate data and is valid, 2) the data collected meet stakeholder needs and are released in a timely fashion, 3) the systems for data collection and processing are technologically advanced and efficient, 4) the dietary databases to support data analyses are scientifically sound and current so as to reflect the U.S. food supply at the time of data collection, 5) the data are interpreted and reported to address critical and pressing policy issues of the time, and 6) the applications developed for collection and processing are made available to the fullest extent possible. Special purpose databases to support specialized research policy needs, including the Food Patterns Equivalents Database used to assess American diets in relation to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, will be developed and maintained.
Through an ongoing collaboration with the National Center for Health Statistics, DHHS, the Food Surveys Research Group (FSRG) has the lead role for dietary data collection and processing of What We Eat in America (WWEIA), NHANES. Web release of WWEIA, NHANES 2011-2012 is on schedule for late 2014, providing the sixth release of national dietary data from this collaboration. The new data will provide information on dietary intakes of 10,000 individuals based on 24-hour dietary recalls weighted to be representative of the population. The corresponding Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS) 2011-12, used to analyze dietary intakes, will also be released in 2014. The FNDDS, used to analyze dietary intakes from WWEIA and by nutrition researchers in their dietary studies, will include a 65-nutrient profile for each of more than 13,000 foods and beverages. FSRG conducted quality control oversight for dietary data collection, coding, and processing for WWEIA, NHANES 2013 and 2014. The review and update of the USDA 5-Step Automated Multiple Pass Method, used to collect 24-hour dietary recalls in WWEIA, was also completed for implementation in 2015. To ensure that supporting survey food databases are current and reflect changes in the U.S. food market, selected food and beverage categories were reviewed to check for new foods, changes to current foods in the database, and new portion sizes. Analysis of the WWEIA data was completed to construct dietary data briefs on the following topics: dietary intake of calcium and fiber, consumption of pizza in the United States, lunch and dinner in America, beverage intakes, and added sugar intakes. The brief on consumption of pizza has been completed and released online. The remaining briefs are in various stages of peer review and finalization. The Provisional Flavonoid Addendum to the USDA FNDDS 4.1. and summary table set were completed and released online. Flavonoids, plant-based polyphenolic compounds, may play important roles in promoting health and preventing disease. Although it has been assumed that compliance with established national guidance to eat a diet rich in plant products is likely to result in an abundant intake of flavonoids, it has not been possible to examine this theory in the U.S. population because flavonoid content profiles were not available for all foods and beverages reported in WWEIA, NHANES. With the Flavonoid Addendum to FNDDS 4.1, it is now possible. The Flavonoid Addendum corresponds with the 2007-2008 WWEIA, NHANES to provide the analytical basis for researchers to quantify dietary flavonoid intakes of the U.S. population and allow further investigation of associations between dietary flavonoid intake and health. It includes estimates of 29 predominant dietary flavonoids categorized into 6 classes. The release also includes documentation describing the specifics of how the dietary flavonoid profiles were compiled. The Food Patterns Equivalents Database (FPED) for 2005-2006 was completed and released online. The FPED corresponds with specific 2-year data releases of WWEIA, NHANES to provide the analytical basis for researchers to evaluate diets based on the recommendations of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The release has several products including a number of databases and summary table sets on the mean intakes of the 37 Food Patterns components by 23 age-gender and socioeconomic subgroups. Development of FPED 2011-2012 for the WWEIA, NHANES 2011-2012 data is underway and planned for release by the end of 2014.
1. Release of national survey data from What We Eat in America, NHANES 2011-2012. Through an ongoing collaboration with the National Center for Health Statistics of DHHS, the Food Surveys Research Group (FSRG) has the leadership role for dietary data collection and processing of What We Eat in America (WWEIA), NHANES. FSRG is in the twelfth successful year of that agreement. New nationwide dietary intake data were collected in WWEIA for the years 2011-2012 and were released on the Web for public use. The data include information on dietary intakes of 8,519 individuals from two nonconsecutive days, 24-hour dietary recalls along with sample weights that can be used to make estimates about dietary intakes of the U.S. population. These data are used by Federal-level and state-level decision makers and researchers in such tasks as monitoring the nutritional adequacy of U.S. diets, modeling the impact of food fortification on nutrient intakes, estimating exposure of population groups to contaminants, developing dietary guidance, and assessing the demand for agricultural products. Linked with health indicators from other components of the NHANES, these data provide opportunities to study relationships between eating patterns and health conditions. The data are accessible from www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/fsrg.
2. Release of summary dietary data tables. WWEIA, NHANES dietary intake data have been analyzed and results have been released on the Web in summarized data tables and dietary data briefs. Forty tables were released for WWEIA, NHANES 2011-2012. The tables report nutrient intakes from food and the contribution of protein, carbohydrates, fat, and alcohol in the American diet as well as the following: percentage of nutrients contributed by foods eaten away from home, at breakfast, at lunch, at dinner, and as snacks; distribution of snack occasion; and distribution of meal patterns. They also provide dietary information for individuals ages 2 and older based on income level and ethnicity.
3. Update and Release of the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies. The USDA Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies 2011-2012 (FNDDS) was released on the Web. The FNDDS is an extensive database of foods as consumed in the U.S. that is used to code foods and portion sizes and to calculate nutrients for the large-scale Federal food consumption survey, What We Eat in America (WWEIA), the dietary intake component of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). FNDDS contains information for nearly 8,000 foods and beverages. Values for food energy and 64 other nutrients are included for each item, as well as weights for common portions of the item. Nutrient values for items in FNDDS are derived from the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference 26. New versions of FNDDS are released every two years to accompany the release of the WWEIA, NHANES data. This update (version 2011-2012) of FNDDS was used to process dietary intakes from WWEIA, NHANES 2011-2012. The database is also a valuable research tool for scientists conducting studies that collect food intake data. The database is accessible from www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/fsrg.
4. Release of the Provisional Flavonoid Addendum to the USDA FNDDS 4.1. This database provides the amounts of 29 flavonoids, 6 flavonoid classes, and total flavonoids present in 100 grams of each food and beverage in the USDA Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies 4.1. The Flavonoid Addendum to FNDDS 4.1 corresponds with the 2007-2008 WWEIA, NHANES. It provides the first analytical basis for researchers to quantify dietary flavonoid intakes of the U.S. population and allows further investigation of associations between flavonoid intake and health. The release also includes a document describing the development of the database and SAS® datasets. The database is accessible from www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/fsrg.
5. Release of summary dietary intakes data tables on flavonoid intake of the U.S. population in 2007-2008. WWEIA, NHANES 2007-2008 dietary intake data were analyzed for intake of dietary flavonoids and results have been released on the Web in summarized data tables. Seven tables were released reporting dietary flavonoid intakes from 29 predominant dietary flavonoids and 6 classes for all individuals ages 2 and older and 23 age-gender groups. The data tables are accessible from www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/fsrg.
6. Release of national estimates of daily intakes of Food Pattern components based on WWEIA, NHANES 2005-2006. Foods and beverages reported in national dietary surveys have been disaggregated into 37 Food Pattern components in order to report on amounts consumed of those components. Four sets of tables have been released on the Web that summarize food and beverage intakes across the 37 Food Pattern components for 23 age-gender and socioeconomic groups for national dietary survey data conducted in 2005-2006. These estimates provide unique data to evaluate food and beverage intakes of Americans compared to recommendations of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The Food Patterns Equivalents Database (FPED) that converts foods reported in the 2005-2006 survey as well as the Methodology and User Guide for FPED were also released on the Web; all are accessible along with the data tables from www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/fsrg.
7. Release of a dietary data brief. WWEIA, NHANES dietary intake data have been analyzed and results have been released on the Web in a dietary data brief. Data briefs are short reports focusing on a single topic summarizing key results from What We Eat in America. The topic for this year's brief is consumption of pizza. The availability of these data briefs is beneficial in providing dietary survey results to food and nutrition program policy and decision makers in Federal, state, and local government, researchers at academic institutions, nutrition scientists and educators, and food and agricultural specialists in industry. The data briefs are accessible from www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/fsrg.
8. Release of the WWEIA Food Categories. Each of the nearly 8,000 foods and beverages in the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies has been linked to one of 150 WWEIA Food Categories. The WWEIA Food Categories provide an application for analyzing foods and beverages as consumed in the American diet. WWEIA Food Categories for 2011-2012 dietary data for WWEIA, NHANES were released on the Web and are accessible from www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/fsrg.
Bowman, S.A., Clemens, J.C., Friday, J.E., Thoerig, R.C., Moshfegh, A.J. 2014. Food Patterns Equivalents Intakes from Food: Mean Amounts Consumed per Individual, What We Eat in America, NHANES 2005-2006, Tables 1-4. Worldwide Web Site: Food Surveys Research Group. Available: www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=23868.
Bowman, S.A., Clemens, J.C., Friday, J.E., Thoerig, R.C., Moshfegh, A.J. 2014. Food Patterns Equivalents Database 2005-2006: Methodology and User Guide. Worldwide Web Site: Food Surveys Research Group. Available: www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=23870.
Kim, S.A., Moore, L.V., Galuska, D., Wright, A.P., Harris, D., Grummer-Strawn, L.M., Merlo, C.L., Nihiser, A.J., Rhodes, D.G. 2014. Vital Signs: Fruit and vegetable intake among children - United States, 2003-2010. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 63:671-676. Available: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6331a3.htm?s_cid=mm6331a3_e.
Freedman, L.S., Commins, J.M., Moler, J.E., Arab, L., Baer, D.J., Kipnis, V., Midthune, D., Moshfegh, A.J., Neuhouser, M.L., Prentice, R.L., Schatzkin, A., Spiegelman, D., Subar, A.F., Tinker, L.F., Willett, W. 2014. Pooled results from 5 validation studies of dietary self-report instruments using recovery biomarkers for energy and protein intake. American Journal of Epidemiology. 180(2):172-188. DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwu116.
Rhodes, D.G., Adler, M.E., Clemens, J.C., LaComb, R.P., Moshfegh, A.J. 2014. Consumption of pizza in the United States, What We Eat in America, NHANES 2007-2010. Worldwide Web Site: Food Surveys Research Group. Available: www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=19476.
Calvo, M.S., Moshfegh, A.J., Tucker, K.L. 2014. Assessing the health impact of phosphorus in the food supply: Issues and considerations. Advances in Nutrition. 5:104-113. DOI: 10.3945/AN.113.004861.