Location: Sugarcane Research
Project Number: 6052-21000-015-00-D
Project Type: Appropriated
Start Date: Aug 1, 2013
End Date: Jul 31, 2018
Objective 1: Develop and release improved sugarcane cultivars and germplasm having a concentration of genes for specific, highly desirable traits, including resistance to yield-limiting insects and diseases. Objective 2: Broaden the genetic base of sugarcane and related genera to improve output-to-input ratios, yield stability, and specific adaption to temperate environments. Sub-objective 2.A. Characterize and broaden the genetic base of Saccharum to support sugarcane cultivar development. Sub-objective 2.B. Develop a predictive assay for cold tolerance in Saccharum. Objective 3: Develop and deploy clone- and trait-specific genetic markers for marker-assisted selection of priority traits to accelerate breeding efforts. Sub-objective 3.A. Develop genus-, species-, or clone-specific DNA markers. Sub-objective 3.B. Develop trait-specific DNA markers through genetic mapping and association studies.
The program’s breeding strategy is to increase the genetic diversity of parental clones through: (1) acquisition and maintenance of germplasm from wild species of Saccharum and related genera; (2) characterization of parents and progeny for traits (cold tolerance, stubbling ability, disease resistance, and sugarcane borer resistance) that will increase the adaptation of sugarcane to Louisiana’s temperate climate; (3) utilization of crossing and molecular marker techniques to produce interspecific and intergeneric hybrids containing new sources of disease and insect resistance and cold tolerance; and (4) recombination of progeny through backcrossing to develop parental material containing a concentration of desirable genes for the commercial breeding program. Screening procedures will be developed to determine relative cold tolerance among clonal material in the basic breeding program. Cultivar development will emphasize increased sugar yield, along with other import traits such as yield components (stalk number, height, and diameter), fiber concentration, rate of maturation, ratooning ability (stand longevity), harvestability (resistance to lodging, stalk erectness, and stalk brittleness), hardiness (winter survival, early spring vigor, and stalk and ratoon freeze tolerance), abiotic stress tolerance (droughts, floods, and heavy clay soils), and resistance to stalk boring insects (sugarcane borer and Mexican rice borer) and diseases (smut, rust, leaf scald, mosaic, yellow leaf virus, and ratoon stunting). Recurrent selection techniques will be utilized to accelerate the rate of genetic improvement for these important traits. In addition, trait-specific markers closely associated with traits such as sucrose accumulation, cold tolerance, and resistance to the sugarcane borer will be developed to assist breeders in eliminating undesirable plants early in the selection process.