Submitted to: Journal Of Poultry Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/20/1997
Publication Date: N/A
Interpretive Summary: The mycotoxins called fumonisins are a group of toxic chemicals produced by certain species of fungi and can occur as natural contaminants of feedstuffs such as corn. Diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS) and ochratoxin A (OA), another group of toxic chemicals, are also produced by certain species of fungi. To the authors' knowledge, fumonisins and DAS or fumonisins and OA have not been observed to occur simultaneously in a single potential feed grain source. However, because multiple grain sources are used in poultry and livestock diets, the possibility exists for diets to be co-contaminated by these mycotoxins. The effects of feeding these two combinations of mycotoxins to growing chicks have not been previously investigated. The results show that performance was reduced by the fumonisins alone, DAS alone, OA alone; and the combinations of fumonisins and DAS and fumonisins and OA. This effect can best be described as additive or less than additive. It must be pointed out that although toxicity due to fumonisins as well as DAS and OA was shown, it is unlikely that concentrations this high would be encountered under field conditions. This research may be used in assessing the importance of these mycotoxins to the poultry and livestock industries and provides information for use in developing ways to reduce the toxic effects of mycotoxins in contaminated grains.
Technical Abstract: The individual and combined effects of feeding diets containing 3000 mg fumonisin B1 (FB1), and 4 mg diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS) or 3 mg ochratoxin A (OA), were evaluated in two experiments using female turkey poults (Nicholas Large Whites) from d of hatch to 3 wk of age. When compared with controls, body weight gains were reduced 30% (study 1) and 24% (study 2) by FB1, 30% by DAS, 8% by OA, 46% by the FB1 and DAS combination, and 37% by the FB1 and OA combination. The efficiency of feed utilization was adversely affected by all treatments except FB1 in Experiment 2. Relative weights of the liver were significantly increased by all treatments except the DAS treatment. Serum concentrations of cholesterol were decreased and activities of aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase were increased, and several hematological values were altered in poults fed FB1 alone and in combination with either DAS or OA. Results indicate additive or less than additive toxicity, but not toxic synergy, when poults are fed diets containing 300 mg FB1, and 4 mg DAS or 3 mg OA/kg of diet. The likelihood of encountering FB1, DAS, or OA at these concentrations in finished feed is small. However, under field conditions, other stress factors could alter the impact of these mycotoxins on the health and performance of poultry.