|INMAN, COREY - Drexel University|
|SHEVCHUK, KATERYNA - Drexel University|
|ANAYEE, MARK - Drexel University|
|HAMMILL, BILL - Drexel University|
|Lee, Joseph - Joe|
|SARAF, MOHIT - Drexel University|
|SHUCK, CHRISTOPHER - Drexel University|
|SHEKHIREV, MIKHAIL - Drexel University|
|GOGOTSI1, YURY - Drexel University|
Submitted to: Chemical Engineering Journal
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/14/2023
Publication Date: 9/16/2023
Citation: Inman, C.A., Shevchuk, K., Anayee, M., Hammill, B., Lee, J., Saraf, M., Shuck, C., Armstrong, C.M., He, Y., Jin, Z.T., Shekhirev, M., Capobianco Jr, J.A., Gogotsi1, Y. 2023. High-yield and high-throuhput delamination of multilayer MXene via high-pressure homogenization. Chemical Engineering Journal. 475:146089. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2023.146089.
Interpretive Summary: MXenes have a unique combination of properties, including chemical and thermal stability, high surface area, excellent mechanical properties, and a high adsorption capacity in addition to their high electrical conductivity properties. Their ability to be stably suspended in water along with their efficient absorption of electromagnetic waves has led to their incorporation into many applications, such as lithium batteries, supercapacitors, catalysts, transparent conductive electrodes, electromagnetic shielding and even cures for cancer. Here, a novel, high yield, industrial scalable method was developed for synthesizing and dispersing the MXenes in an aqueous suspension. Free-standing MXene films were characterized for their electrochemical and antimicrobial properties. The results indicate MXenes synthesized with the new method contain less impurities and show improved performance relative to those prepared using the current state of the art.
Technical Abstract: 2D MXenes are a large family of two-dimensional (2D) materials with unique properties and numerous potential applications. They are typically produced by selective chemical etching of MAX phase precursors, which is a top-down approach allowing for scalable manufacturing. Multilayer MXenes are then further processed by chemical intercalation and delamination to produce a stable dispersion of 2D flakes in water. The current process of delamination requires multiple time-, energy-, and waste-intensive steps and still fails to delaminate some MXenes. Herein we demonstrate a method of high-energy delamination called high-pressure homogenization (HPH) that combines high shear, cavitation forces, and impact forces to delaminate MXene without any post-process refinement steps or chemical intercalants. HPH-delaminated MXene can be made at scale with high throughput and yield with virtually no waste. We demonstrate the viability of this process by fabricating free-standing films with the material for use as electrodes for energy storage and as an effective antimicrobial coating with over a two-log reduction in pathogenic microbes. We anticipate that this method will decrease the cost of MXene manufacturing and be applicable to a variety MXenes, including those that cannot be currently delaminated via intercalation.