Location: Corn, Soybean and Wheat Quality ResearchTitle: Grain, flour and batter properties estimating cake baking potential of wheat flour
Submitted to: Cereal Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/29/2022
Publication Date: 5/2/2022
Citation: Baik, B.V., Donelson, T.S. 2022. Grain, flour and batter properties estimating cake baking potential of wheat flour. Cereal Chemistry. Article 10560. https://doi.org/10.1002/cche.10560.
Interpretive Summary: Cakes are commonly prepared from soft wheat flour of fine particle size, low protein content and low damaged starch content, while those characteristics vary widely among wheat varieties and are heavily influenced by growing conditions. Swift and reliable determination for cake baking quality is crucial in screening breeding lines in variety development and in the procurement of wheat grain and flour by millers and bakers. With absence of established protocol and simple and fast tests, cake baking quality of wheat is largely determined by performing an experimental cake baking test, which is inefficient and low in throughput. In the presented study, we intended to determine the associations of the wheat grain and flour characteristics with cake quality and identify their potentials for the prediction of cake baking quality of wheat flour. Kernel hardness, and water or sucrose solution retaining capacities were identified to be effective indicatives of cake baking quality as evidenced by their strong relationships with cake volume. The viscosities of the batter prepared from just flour and water or flour, sucrose and water also differed widely among flours of different characteristics and showed strong relationships with cake volume, proving their potentials of estimating cake baking quality. With stronger associations with cake volume, flour-sucrose batter viscosity is expected to be more effective in estimating flour quality for baking cakes than flour-water batter viscosity, whereas the latter is much easier to prepare than the former considering the difficulty of evenly dispersing wheat flour in 50% sucrose solution. Identification of kernel hardness, water and sucrose solution retention capacities of flour, and viscosities of flour-water and flour-sucrose batters as effective tools for cake baking quality estimation would be greatly helpful to wheat breeders in screening breeding lines of high cake baking quality potential and to millers and bakers in the procurement of wheat and flour suitable for baking cakes.
Technical Abstract: Background and objectives: The experimental baking test is lengthy, low in throughput and not appropriate for evaluating large number of wheat flours for baking cakes. To explore effective and efficient tools for the estimation of wheat grain and flour quality for making cakes, grain, flour and batter characteristics were analyzed and their relationships with cake quality parameters were determined. Findings: Kernel hardness and solvent retention capacities (SRCs) exhibited negative relationships with cake volume. The flow distances and RVA viscosities of flour-water and flour-sucrose batters effectively differentiated wheat flour of varying characteristics, and showed significant relationships with cake volume. Conclusions: Kernel hardness, SRCs and flour-water and flour-sucrose batter viscosities are associated with cake volume and could effectively estimate flour quality for baking cakes. Low kernel hardness and low solvent absorption/retention of flour are desirable for baking cakes. Flour-water and flour-sucrose batters that are less viscous and more fluid produce cakes with higher volumes. Significance and novelty: The identification of grain, flour and batter characteristics as effective estimates of cake baking quality would greatly benefit breeders in the screening of breeding lines and millers and bakers in the selection of wheat grain flour for baking cakes.