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ARS Home » Midwest Area » Wooster, Ohio » Corn, Soybean and Wheat Quality Research » Research » Research Project #438203

Research Project: Enhancement of Eastern U.S. Wheat Quality, Genetics and Marketability

Location: Corn, Soybean and Wheat Quality Research

Project Number: 5082-43440-002-00-D
Project Type: In-House Appropriated

Start Date: Jun 1, 2020
End Date: May 31, 2025

Objective:
Objective 1: Develop accurate and efficient testing methods for processing and marketing quality of soft winter (SW) wheat. Sub-objective 1a. Develop simple and fast methods for the estimation of wheat grain PHS. Sub-objective 1b. Improve the existing cracker baking test to make it easier and more widely useable. Objective 2: Identify SW wheat varieties with various quality characteristics for new food uses. Sub-objective 2a. Determine the suitability of eastern SW wheat for making tortillas and identify the required quality characteristics. Sub-objective 2b. Determine the suitability of eastern SW wheat for making white salted noodles and identify the required quality characteristics. Sub-objective 2c. Develop and evaluate partial and full waxy wheat germplasms for new use. Objective 3: Develop markers for pre-harvest sprouting using a diverse SW wheat population. Sub-objective 3a. Find Eastern SW wheat varieties closely related genetically that differ in PHS resistance. Sub-objective 3b. Locate regions for PHS resistance using a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) on a diverse panel of SW wheat with genotype-by-sequencing (GBS) markers. Sub-objective 3c. Uncover genes differentially expressed under conditions conducive to PHS versus non-conducive comparing results between lines that are resistant or susceptible to PHS. Sub-objective 3d. Develop markers for resistance to PHS. Objective 4: Evaluate and report the milling (processing and intrinsic end-use quality) parameters of SW wheat commercially viable cultivars.

Approach:
The Soft Wheat Quality Laboratory (SWQL) aims to improve the end-use quality, uses and marketability of soft winter (SW) wheat in the eastern U.S. by contributing to the development of wheat varieties of improved end-use quality potential and developing new food uses. To attain this goal, the SWQL works to develop reliable and efficient quality testing methods, performs fundamental research on grain characteristics and genetics associated with quality traits, explores potentials of eastern soft wheat for extended uses and performs the comprehensive evaluation of breeding lines for end use quality. The project plan encompasses the effective evaluation of pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) damage and cracker baking quality potential, extended use potentials for tortillas and noodles, genetic factors controlling PHS, and milling and baking quality evaluation of SW wheat, which are crucial for the quality improvement and extended uses of eastern SW wheat. The required quality characteristics and suitability of eastern SW wheat grain for making tortillas and soft-bite wheat salted noodles will be identified and demonstrated, respectively. Development of partial and full waxy wheat germplasms will be continued, and their potential uses including tortilla and noodles will be examined. The identification of genetic factors controlling PHS and development of markers for PHS resistance will be conducted in four phases: 1) identify eastern SW wheat varieties closely related genetically that differ in PHS resistance; 2) locate regions for PHS resistance using a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) on a diverse panel of SW wheat with genotype-by-sequencing markers; 3) identify genes differentially expressed under conditions conducive to PHS versus non-conducive comparing results between lines that are resistant or susceptible to PHS; and 4) develop markers for PHS resistance from GWAS and expression analysis. To contribute to the development of wheat varieties of improved end-use quality potential, the annual evaluation of eastern SW wheat breeding lines for defined milling and baking quality characteristics wil be conducted in collaboration with eastern SW breeding programs.