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Research Project: Biological Control and Integrated Management of Invasive Arthropod Pests from Europe, Asia, and Africa

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Title: Surveillance of invasive mosquito species in islands with focus on potential vectors of zoonotic diseases

item BARCELO, C - Universitat De Les Illes Balears
item BLANDA, V - Institute Of Experimental Zooprofilattic
item DEL CASTILLO-REMIRO, A - University Of La Laguna
item CHASKOPOULOU, A - European Biological Control Laboratory (EBCL)
item CONNELY, C - Centers For Disease Control And Prevention (CDC) - United States
item FERRERO-GOMEZ, L - Jean Piaget University Of Cape Verde
item LA RUSSA, F - Institute Of Experimental Zooprofilattic
item PARKER-CROCKETT, C - Adapco, Inc
item SERAFIN-PEREZ, I - Ministry Of Science And Innovation, Csic
item SOUSA, C - Universidade Nova De Lisboa
item TORINA, A - Institute Of Experimental Zooprofilattic
item VONTAS, J - Agricultural University Of Athens
item MIRANDA, M - Universitat De Les Illes Balears

Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/26/2022
Publication Date: 7/1/2022
Citation: Barcelo, C., Blanda, V., Del Castillo-Remiro, A., Chaskopoulou, A., Connely, C.R., Ferrero-Gomez, L., La Russa, F., Parker-Crockett, C., Serafin-Perez, I., Sousa, C.A., Torina, A., Vontas, J., Miranda, M.A. 2022. Surveillance of invasive mosquito species in islands with focus on potential vectors of zoonotic diseases. Book Chapter. In: Ecology of diseases transmitted by mosquitoes to wildlife. 7: 179-207.

Interpretive Summary: Invasive species are those species introduced frequently by human means outside their native distribution area resulting in significant negative impacts on the environment, agronomy, public health, economy and culture. During the last decades, several mosquito species of the genus Aedes have been introduced in different countries worldwide. The invasive potential of this species and their role in the transmission of vector-borne diseases is one of the major concerns for public health. Since the 1970s Aedes invasive mosquito species are responsible for economic losses up to 150 billion USD globally. Island ecosystems are highly vulnerable than the continental ones. Hence, the introduction of invasive mosquitoes has important effects on islands, since they may destabilize island ecological communities, including impacts on endemic fauna and flora. In fact, this impact could be amplified by climate change and urban development. The current book chapter summarizes information regarding the introduction of invasive mosquitoes on islands in Spain, Portugal, Cabo Verde, Italy, Greece and USA ,focusing on surveillance and control methods, and shall be very useful education material to public health authorities and stakeholders across the world.

Technical Abstract: The invasive species (IS) introduced in islands cause important impacts due to the vulnerability of their ecosystems. The invasive potential of certain mosquito species and their role as vectors of pathogens is one of the main concerns for public and animal health. The introduction of IS such as Aedes albopictus (Skuse 1895), Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus 1762) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823 are also related to outbreaks of vector-borne diseases (VBD) such as yellow fever, dengue and Zika. Here, we review the surveillance activities on mosquito IS conducted in several islands of different origin (i.e.: volcanic vs. continental origin) located in different countries of the world. Those countries included Cabo Verde, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain and the USA. In regards to continental islands, Aedes albopictus was detected in the Balearic Islands (Spain) in 2012 despite monitoring at points of entry lead by National authorities since 2008. Greece comprises over 6000 islands and islets with first record of Ae. albopictus in Corfu in 2003. In Italy, Ae. albopictus was first detected in Sicily in 2004 where several cases of filariasis by Dirofilaria repens in dogs and humans have been reported. Volcanic origin islands are characterized by having all mosquito fauna introduced from the continent. In Cabo Verde, Anopheles arabiensis is the main vector of malaria and can also transmit lymphatic filariasis. Aedes aegypti is also present in Cabo Verde since 1930 causing several outbreaks of dengue and Zika in 2009 and 2015. In Spain, Ae. aegypti was detected in Fuerteventura (Canary Islands) in 2017, but the fast intervention of local authorities reached its eradication in 2019. In Portugal, Ae. aegypti was first recorded in Madeira in 2006 with a single outbreak of dengue in 2012. In the USA, the islands of Hawaii has currently six established IS of mosquitoes including the four top vector species Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti, Ae. japonicus and Cx. quinquefasciatus, which have been implicated in outbreaks of dengue and transmission of Dirofilaria immitis.